10 Weirdest Moons In The Solar System, Some Have Earth Seasons
SUKABUMIUPDATE.com All planets in our solar system have satellites, a simple example is the Moon (Chandra) on Earth.
There is a beautiful and surreal world within the Moon itself, an inanimate world created by ancient volcanoes and countless impact craters.
Additionally, there are many other moons that are satellites of the giant planets in the solar system that formed along with the composition or material of the planet that hosts them.
But out of all the moons in the solar system, there are 10 that are called the weirdest moons.
What are these months? Let’s take a look at the explanation below, as we summarize it from Live Science.
Since the arrival of NASA’s Cassini spacecraft on Saturn in 2004, the planet’s small interior satellite, Enceladus, has been one of the most studied and debated worlds in the entire solar system.
This is due to his newfound fame for discovering large clusters of water ice that erupted in space with a crack in its southern part and marked by the presence of liquid water just under the thin ice crust of the Moon.
Enceladus’ strange activity had been suspected before Cassini’s arrival, thanks to previous images showing the Moon showing an unusually bright surface and ice-covered craters.
Nevertheless, the discovery of floating ice is a great confirmation that Enceladus is an active world.
With a diameter of 313 miles (504 km) and a rock/ice composition, Enceladus must have solidified billions of years ago, like many of its neighbors in the Saturn system.
But tidal forces due to the gravitational pull between Saturn and Dione (the largest moon) keep the Moon’s interior warm and active, making it a prime target in the search for life in the solar system. .
As most of the ice falls back to cover the surface and much of it escapes the weak gravity so that it enters the orbit around Saturn which forms the outermost and sparse main rings of Saturn.
Callisto is a satellite of Jupiter and the third largest moon in the solar system, slightly smaller than the planet Mercury.
Callisto is known to be the most cratered object in the solar system. Its dark surface covers the crater to the limit of visibility, the deepest of which has exposed fresh ice from below and bright “ejected” debris scattered across the surface.
3. Dactylus (243 moon Ida)
243 Ida, an asteroid designated as a minor planet, with the Moon at a distance of only 1.6 km on its longest axis.
Thanks to the large asteroid’s low gravity, Dactyl is unlikely to be an object captured in orbit, but the alternative – that Ida and Dactyl formed next to each other – raises many questions.
Ida is a major member of the Koronis family of over 300 asteroids, all of which share the same orbit.
It is believed that the family was formed 1 or 2 billion years ago during an asteroid collision.
The Dactyl could have been a small piece of debris from a collision that ended up in orbit around Ida, but there’s a catch – computer models suggest that Dactyl would almost certainly have been destroyed by the impact of another asteroid.
Iapetus has two separate claims for a spot on the list of weird satellites. It was first clearly visible when it was discovered in 1672 (much fainter when viewed from one side of its orbit than the other moon).
Its main hemisphere or the part that faces forward in orbit around Saturn is dark brown in color. While the back color is light brown.
One of the earliest theories to explain the color difference was that the front was covered in dust produced by a small meteorite impact on the smaller outer moon, which is heading towards Saturn.
Cassini’s images, however, reveal a more complicated story. Most of the darkness comes from the interior of Iapetus, which remains a dark “hole” in the Moon’s surface in the form of dusty ice.
This process was likely triggered by the accumulation of dust in the outer Moon’s leading hemisphere. But once introduced, the tendency of dark surfaces to absorb heat led to an uncontrolled sublimation effect.
Iapetus is also surrounded by equatorial mountains that are 13 km high and 20 km wide, giving the moon its distinctive Canarian shape.
The origin of this mountain range is puzzling, with some theories suggesting it is a fossil from a time when Iapetus spread rapidly and spread across the equator.
While others believe the mountains may be debris from a ring system that once orbited the Moon and fell to its surface.
Nereid is the second moon to be found orbiting Neptune and is notable for deviating from its extreme orbit.
The distance from the Nereids to Neptune is between 870,000 and 6 million miles (1.4 million and 9.7 million km). These orbits are generally typical of captured satellites, but the Nereid’s unusually large size suggests a slightly more interesting story.
Io is the innermost of the four giant Galilean moons orbiting the largest planet, Jupiter.
Io’s surface is a deadly red, yellow, and brown as it is filled with strange, ever-changing mineral formations created by the sulfur that always protrudes from its surface.
Ayo itself is the most volcanic world in our solar system. Its strange surface was first observed during Pioneer’s spacecraft in the early 1970s, but its volcanic nature was not predicted until weeks before the Voyager 1 mission arrived in 1979.
The Moon is caught in a gravitational tug of war with the other moons and Jupiter, making Io’s orbit an incomplete circle.
Small changes in Io’s distance from Jupiter – less than 0.5% of the change in its orbit – create large tidal forces that affect the Moon’s interior in all directions.
Rocks rub against each other and heat up due to friction, melting the Moon’s core and creating large reservoirs of magma below its surface.
While most rocks on Io are Earth-like silicates, they have relatively high melting points and most melt in seas of hot magma that lie dozens of miles below the surface.
In contrast, much of Io’s surface activity consists of sulfur-rich rock that can remain molten at low temperatures.
Together, these two forms of volcanism ejected icy material over a long period of time, which was originally near Io, an arid, iceless world despite an average surface temperature of -256°F (- 160°C). leave behind.
Hyperion is the strangest satellite in the solar system, with its surface resembling a sponge or coral with deep craters surrounded by mountains, rocks and light ice.
But that’s not the only weird thing about Hyperion, as it’s the first non-spherical moon to actually be discovered, and it has a decidedly eccentric orbit.
Instead of matching its rotation to the period of its orbit, it rotates in a chaotic pattern, with its axis of rotation wobbly in unexpected ways.
Like all moons in the outer solar system, it is composed mostly of water ice, but its surface is unusually dark.
When Cassini passed it, its density was measured at 55% that of water, and its interior was mostly empty space.
A popular theory to explain these strange features is that Hyperion is the remnant of a large living satellite that once orbited between Titan and Iapetus, most of which was destroyed by a collision with a large comet.
Matter that survived a stable orbit then coalesced to form the Hyperion we know today.
Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, is unique as the only satellite in the solar system to have its own substantial atmosphere – a discovery that disappointed NASA scientists when Voyager images revealed only a low orange ball.
The Cassini orbiter equipped with infrared instruments and radar penetrates the opaque atmosphere, revealing a gentle landscape of rivers and lakes unlike any other world in the solar system except Earth.
Although larger than Mercury, Titan can only maintain its dense atmosphere because of the cold.
At a distance of about 0.9 billion miles (1.4 billion km) from the Sun, Titan’s surface has an average freezing point of -179°C (-290°F).
Titan’s atmosphere is dominated by inert nitrogen gas, which is also a major component of Earth’s air.
But it gets its distinctive color, opaque fog and clouds from a relatively small proportion of methane.
Interestingly, the conditions on Titan, where methane transforms into its gaseous, liquid, and solid state, generate a “methane cycle” that is somewhat similar to the water cycle that shapes Earth’s climate.
In cold weather, methane freezes to the surface as ice. At moderate temperatures this liquid condenses into droplets and falls as rain which erodes and softens the landscape before accumulating in lakes, while in warm regions it evaporates and returns to the atmosphere. come.
Titan experiences similar seasonal changes to planet Earth, even though the year is 29.5 Earth years.
Polar winter temperatures seem to favor precipitation, so the lakes move from pole to pole every Titanic year.
With all of this activity, Titan is an attractive target in the search for extraterrestrial life, although most biologists find it hard to imagine an organism that could live in the harsh, chemically constrained conditions, and most agree that the waters of Titan Its inner neighbor, Enceladus, offers more promising life prospects.
Miranda is one of the strangest moons in the solar system. Some parts are heavily cratered and some are relatively hollow.
A standout feature is the concentric oval pattern that resembles a racing track, while elsewhere the parallel V-shape creates a chevron-like mark.
The initial theory to explain Miranda’s disoriented appearance was that it was a Frankenstein’s world – a collection of fragments from an ancient moon that had accumulated in orbit around Uranus.
Astronomers wonder if Miranda’s past was destroyed by an interplanetary impact, a phenomenon that could be linked to the extreme tilt of Uranus.
When NASA’s Voyager took a spacewalk and sent the first detailed images of Mimas in the 1980s, scientists and the public were intrigued by its Star Wars Death Star.
MImas is a large crater and is named after William Herschel, who discovered the Moon in 1789.
Source: Live Science