A first catalog of planets hosting several star systems of order three and higher

Possible orbits of a planet in a hierarchical system of triple stars. Note that m1, m2 and m3 do not necessarily correspond


We present a catalog (status as of July 1, 2022) of identified triple and higher order systems containing exoplanets from literature data, including various analyses. We explore the statistical properties of systems focusing on both stars and planets.

So far around 30 triple systems and one to three quadruple systems, including (slightly) controversial cases, have been found. The total number of planets is close to 40. All planet-hosting triple star systems are highly hierarchical, consisting of a quasi-binary complemented by a distant stellar component, which orbits the common center of mass. Moreover, quadruple systems are actually pairs of close binaries (“double-doubles”), one binary harboring a planet.

For the different types of star-planet systems, we introduce a model for the classifications of planetary orbital configurations in correspondence with the hierarchy of the system and the planetary host. The data shows that almost all of the stars are main sequence stars, as expected. However, stellar primaries tend to be more massive (i.e., matching spectral types A, F, and G) than expected from single star statistics, a conclusion also valid for stellar secondaries but less pronounced. Tertiary stellar components are almost exclusively low-mass stars of spectral type M.

Almost all planets have been discovered based on the Radial Velocity or Transit method. Gas giants (the dominant type) and terrestrial planets (including super-Earths) have been identified. We plan to expand this database in light of future planetary research missions.

M.Cuntz, GE Luke, MJ Millard, L. Boyle, SD Patel

Comments: Accepted by ApJS; 59 pages, including 11 figures and 12 tables
Subjects: Solar and stellar astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Terrestrial and planetary astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)
Cite as: arXiv:2209.11346 [astro-ph.SR] (or arXiv:2209.11346v1 [astro-ph.SR] for this version)
Focus to learn more
Submission history
By: Manfred Cuntz
[v1] Thu Sep 22 2022 11:38:14 PM UTC (1,798 KB)


Comments are closed.