Astronomy – Sinia Planeta http://sinia-planeta.com/ Mon, 19 Sep 2022 17:32:18 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://sinia-planeta.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/icon-50-120x120.png Astronomy – Sinia Planeta http://sinia-planeta.com/ 32 32 The Outer Banks Voice – Cape Lookout National Seashore hosts September Astronomy Night to showcase images from the Webb Telescope https://sinia-planeta.com/the-outer-banks-voice-cape-lookout-national-seashore-hosts-september-astronomy-night-to-showcase-images-from-the-webb-telescope/ Fri, 16 Sep 2022 18:45:45 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/the-outer-banks-voice-cape-lookout-national-seashore-hosts-september-astronomy-night-to-showcase-images-from-the-webb-telescope/ SEPTEMBER 24 Cape Lookout National Seashore hosts September Astronomy Evening to showcase images from the Webb Telescope By Story submitted on September 16, 2022 Star Party after the presentation with park staff and local astronomers from the Crystal Coast Stargazers Cape Lookout National Seashore (a Certified International Dark Sky Park) welcomes night sky enthusiasts to […]]]>

SEPTEMBER 24

Cape Lookout National Seashore hosts September Astronomy Evening to showcase images from the Webb Telescope

By Story submitted on September 16, 2022

Star Party after the presentation with park staff and local astronomers from the Crystal Coast Stargazers

Cape Lookout National Seashore (a Certified International Dark Sky Park) welcomes night sky enthusiasts to astronomy night Saturday, September 24 at the Harkers Island Visitor Center at 7:00 p.m. (EDT).

Join us at the Harkers Island Visitor Center Theater as NASA Solar System Ambassador Matthew Bruce gives a 45-minute presentation on the James Webb (Webb) Space Telescope that NASA launched in December 2021. Webb is the largest, most powerful and most complex space telescope ever created. built and launched into space.

Immediately following the presentation, park staff and local astronomers from the Crystal Coast Stargazers (a NASA Night Sky Network astronomy club) will host a star party on the Visitor Center grounds that will provide curious attendees with the ability to see astronomical objects above the outer southern shores. through the lens of a telescope.

This event is kid-friendly, but we don’t ask for pets. Stargazing depends on the weather. Solar System Ambassador programs come rain or shine. Please monitor the weather and/or call the Harkers Island Visitor Center (252-728-2250) by 5:00 p.m. (EDT) to confirm event status.

Make the most of the night by coming prepared. Check the weather and dress accordingly. Also bring your own lawn chairs, blankets, water, snacks, insect repellent, or any other comfort items. We recommend a flashlight with a red filter to help maintain everyone’s night vision.

People can also consider bringing their own telescopes to learn how to get the most out of their equipment from Stargazers club members.

The program is FREE. For more information, visit http://go.nps.gov/astronomynight


About the National Park Service. More than 20,000 National Park Service employees care for America’s 423 national parks and work with communities across the country to help preserve local history and create nearby recreational opportunities. Learn more about www.nps.gov.



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The fiery comet’s tail is whipped by solar winds in a stunning astronomy photo https://sinia-planeta.com/the-fiery-comets-tail-is-whipped-by-solar-winds-in-a-stunning-astronomy-photo/ Fri, 16 Sep 2022 16:38:57 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/the-fiery-comets-tail-is-whipped-by-solar-winds-in-a-stunning-astronomy-photo/ An ethereal image of Comet Leonard traveling against the solar wind has won first prize in the Royal Observatory Greenwich Astronomical Photographer of the Year competition. Austrian photographer Gerald Rhemann captured the view of the comet and its long tail on Christmas Day 2021 from Namibia. Rhemann’s image reveals a ghostly veil of gas from […]]]>

An ethereal image of Comet Leonard traveling against the solar wind has won first prize in the Royal Observatory Greenwich Astronomical Photographer of the Year competition.

Austrian photographer Gerald Rhemann captured the view of the comet and its long tail on Christmas Day 2021 from Namibia. Rhemann’s image reveals a ghostly veil of gas from the comet captured and carried away by the solar wind.

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101 Must-See Cosmic Objects: The Lagoon Nebula https://sinia-planeta.com/101-must-see-cosmic-objects-the-lagoon-nebula/ Fri, 16 Sep 2022 15:19:47 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/101-must-see-cosmic-objects-the-lagoon-nebula/ The Orion Nebula gets tough competition for best-in-class from the Lagoon Nebula (M8) in Sagittarius. The Lagoon Nebula is visible to the naked eye on dark moonless nights as a bright spot along the Milky Way north of the beak of the Sagittarius Teapot asterism. The Lagoon Nebula was discovered by Italian astronomer Giovanni Battista […]]]>

The Orion Nebula gets tough competition for best-in-class from the Lagoon Nebula (M8) in Sagittarius. The Lagoon Nebula is visible to the naked eye on dark moonless nights as a bright spot along the Milky Way north of the beak of the Sagittarius Teapot asterism.

The Lagoon Nebula was discovered by Italian astronomer Giovanni Battista Hodierna in 1654, when he described it as a nebula. What Hodierna probably saw, however, was not what we know today as the Lagoon Nebula, but rather an embedded open star cluster separately cataloged as NGC 6523. In fact, most records of early observations refer to the open cluster without mentioning the nebula from which it originated.

William Herschel was the first to define the nebula as a separate object. In 1785 he described it as “a vast milky nebulosity divided into two parts”. Irish astronomer Agnes M. Clerke coined the nickname “the Lagoon Nebula” in her 1890 book The star system.

When we set our sights on M8, our gaze takes us some 4,100 light years away. Under dark skies, 10×50 binoculars can make out the overall oval shape of the lagoon, as well as the dark slice that bisects the nebula. Telescopes, meanwhile, reveal many of the swirling nebula’s more intricate features.

Hidden within the nebula is another star cluster: NGC 6530. Some of its young stars twinkle among the rifts in the nebulosity. If you plan on looking for it, expect to spot between two dozen and three dozen light fixtures in most backyard spotting scopes.

Many other stars are also found in the lagoon clouds. One of the brightest is Sagittarii of magnitude 69, a massive binary system comprising two extremely close O-type stars whose radiation energizes much of the nebula. Another notable star in the field is Herschel 36, a magnitude 9.5 supergiant just west of the brightest part of the nebula.


Be sure to explore astronomy full list of 101 cosmic objects you must see. New entries will be added weekly throughout 2022.

To get the latest astronomical news and observational content delivered right to your door, subscribe to Astronomy magazine today!

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Bad astronomy | Mars Perseverance rover discovers igneous rocks in Jezero Crater https://sinia-planeta.com/bad-astronomy-mars-perseverance-rover-discovers-igneous-rocks-in-jezero-crater/ Tue, 13 Sep 2022 13:00:11 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/bad-astronomy-mars-perseverance-rover-discovers-igneous-rocks-in-jezero-crater/ Since landing on Mars in February 2021, the Perseverance rover has been exploring Jezero Crater, a 50 kilometer wide impact feature. The purpose of the mission is to search for evidence that Mars once had or may still have areas that can support life. Jezero was chosen as the landing site because it was very […]]]>

Since landing on Mars in February 2021, the Perseverance rover has been exploring Jezero Crater, a 50 kilometer wide impact feature. The purpose of the mission is to search for evidence that Mars once had or may still have areas that can support life.

Jezero was chosen as the landing site because it was very clearly a lake of stagnant water at some point in the past. Orbiters have detected minerals forming in the water there, and in the northwest part of the crater are the remains of a huge river delta formation, sediments deposited when the water flowed in the crater eons ago – think of the Nile Delta and you have it.

You might expect, then, that the bottom of the crater would be loaded with sedimentary rocks; the minerals deposited as silt and grains of other material settled into the lake bed, were compressed and formed layers of rock. But the geology is sneaky, even – or especially – on Mars, and can fool you. Not everything happens in chronological order

One of the first places the rover visited was a patch of rock called the Séítah unit – which means “in the middle of the sand” in the Navajo language, which is fitting – known to have some of the oldest rocks in the crater , including bedrock and sediment. layers nearby.

Four research papers have been published in the journals Science and Science Advances with details of what Perseverance found there [links to Paper 1, Paper 2, Paper 3, and Paper 4]. They generally deal with the question: what do the rocks above and below the surface tell us about the geology of the area and the chronology of water in Lake Jezero?

Perseverance has many scientific instruments on board to examine Mars, and they each tell a story about the rocks that can be used to create a cohesive picture. What they found was that the area is rich in olivine and other magma-formed minerals, meaning they were looking at igneous rocks, not sedimentary ones, and that although they are under a lake, these rocks had not been strongly modified by interactions with water.

Using the Planetary X-Ray Lithochemistry Instrument (or PIXL), scientists examined some rock outcrops at Séítah and found that they were of igneous origin. They saw olivine crystals there and found that they were about 1-3 mm in size. Olivine is a relatively simple mineral that forms in magma as it cools, and the grain size depends on how long it takes to cool. If the magma flows to the surface and cools quickly, the crystals do not have time to form and the grains are small. Those of the size found by PIXL indicate that the magma cooled slowly, so it was probably still below the surface when it hardened.

They also find evidence of interaction with water in rocks, but it is not extensive. This agrees with one of the other papers that found rocks at Séítah containing carbonates, minerals consistent with the rocks being exposed to carbonated water, but again under water-poor conditions. The cracks in the rocks were filled with minerals that were probably deposited by very salty water later.

From orbit, it was hard to tell what was forming these rocks: sediment from the lake bed, ash from volcanic eruptions, magma seeping from below, or stuff blown by the Martian wind that then turned into rock. All that was known was that the crater formed between 3.82 and 3.96 billion years ago.

But with Perseverance in place, a clearer picture emerges. The bedrock is igneous, formed from magma early in Mars’ history. An asteroid impact carved out the huge crater, exposing much of the bedrock, and possibly more magma erupted afterwards.

Then the water. Much of it certainly flowed from the northwest, forming the delta, and there are overflow features to the southeast as well. These indicate standing water, although the duration is still unclear. Over the seasons — centuries? Millennia? After? — the sediments accumulated at the bottom of the lake, covering the bedrock.

But then disaster. Something has changed on or more likely inside Mars. One idea is that the small iron core has cooled enough to solidify. When this happened, the Martian magnetic field shut down, and until then it had protected the planet from the onslaught of subatomic particles from the solar wind. The wind then stripped much of the planet’s atmosphere and surface water either boiled off in the low pressure or seeped into the surface (though it’s unclear how much found its way down).

Jezero Lake changed back to just Jezero Crater when the water dried up. It was billions of years ago and the wind, though weak, was relentless. Over the eons, erosion removed much of the softer sedimentary rock, leaving behind the harder igneous rocks. Some of them would have been just below the sedimentary layers, so they had some interaction with water, but not much, explaining the minerals Perseverance found there.

This is both good and bad for scientists. Igneous rocks are great for getting things like the timeline of geologic events because the crystals keep track of when they formed through things like radioactive decay. However, they would contain no actual information about any life that may have existed in the lake; they formed too early.

On the other hand, all is not lost. In April, Perseverance reached the base of the immense sedimentary delta. The rocks he finds there will be more difficult to find an age, but could retain evidence of life if they existed in the ancient lake.

The rover could find this evidence on its own, but it’s also collecting rock samples and storing them for an ambitious mission to send them to Earth for study here. The plan is to send an orbiter and a lander in 2027 and 2028; the lander will collect the samples, launch them to the orbiter, which will then return to Earth with them in 2033. It’s a complex and difficult undertaking, but the payoff could be the biggest in history: Proof of life on another world.

Or it may show that Mars never had life in the lake. In any case, it will be very, very important to know. And we are about to find out.

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New ‘breathtaking’ Webb images to reveal secrets of star birth | Astronomy https://sinia-planeta.com/new-breathtaking-webb-images-to-reveal-secrets-of-star-birth-astronomy/ Mon, 12 Sep 2022 14:00:00 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/new-breathtaking-webb-images-to-reveal-secrets-of-star-birth-astronomy/ “Breathtaking” images of a stellar nursery in the Orion Nebula taken by the James Webb Space Telescope reveal intricate details about the formation of stars and planetary systems. The images, released on Monday, highlight an environment similar to our own solar system when it formed more than 4.5 billion years ago. Observing the Orion Nebula […]]]>

“Breathtaking” images of a stellar nursery in the Orion Nebula taken by the James Webb Space Telescope reveal intricate details about the formation of stars and planetary systems.

The images, released on Monday, highlight an environment similar to our own solar system when it formed more than 4.5 billion years ago. Observing the Orion Nebula will help space scientists better understand what happened during the first million years of the Milky Way’s planetary evolution, says Western University astrophysicist Els Peeters in a press release.

“We’re blown away by the breathtaking images of the Orion Nebula. We started this project in 2017, so we’ve waited over five years to get this data,” Peeters said.

“These new observations allow us to better understand how massive stars transform the cloud of gas and dust in which they are born,” added Peeters.

The cores of stellar nurseries like the Orion Nebula are obscured by large amounts of stardust, making it impossible to study what’s going on inside with instruments like the Hubble Space Telescope, which rest mainly in visible light.

Webb, however, detects infrared light from the cosmos, which allows observers to see through these layers of dust, revealing the action taking place deep inside the Orion Nebula, according to the release. The images are the most detailed and sharpest shots of the nebula – which is located in the constellation of Orion 1,350 light-years from Earth – and the latest offering from the Webb Telescope, which started operating in July .

“Observing the Orion Nebula was a challenge because it is very bright for Webb’s unprecedented sensitive instruments. brightest in the infrared sky,” Olivier Berné, a researcher at CNRS, France’s National Center for Scientific Research, said in the press release.

The new images reveal many structures inside the nebula, including proplyds – a central protostar surrounded by a disk of dust and gas in which planets form.

“We have never been able to see the intricate details of how interstellar matter is structured in these environments, and understand how planetary systems can form in the presence of this aggressive radiation. These images reveal the legacy of the interstellar medium in planetary systems,” said Emilie Habart, associate professor at the Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS) in France.

The trapezoidal cluster of massive young stars that shapes the cloud of dust and gas with their intense ultraviolet radiation is also clearly visible at the core of the Orion Nebula, according to the press release. Understanding how this radiation impacts the environment of the cluster is essential to understanding the formation of star systems.

“Massive young stars emit large amounts of ultraviolet radiation directly into the native cloud that still surrounds them, which changes the physical shape of the cloud as well as its chemical composition. How precisely does this work and how does it affect it the formation of stars and planets is not yet well known,” said Peeters.

The images will be studied by an international collaboration of more than 100 scientists in 18 countries known as PDRs4All.

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Bad astronomy | The red dwarf LP 890-9 has two super-Earths, one in the habitable zone https://sinia-planeta.com/bad-astronomy-the-red-dwarf-lp-890-9-has-two-super-earths-one-in-the-habitable-zone/ Fri, 09 Sep 2022 13:00:15 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/bad-astronomy-the-red-dwarf-lp-890-9-has-two-super-earths-one-in-the-habitable-zone/ Very cool exoplanet news, literally: Two super-Earth planets have been found around a red dwarf star, and one of them is the right distance from its star to – maybe – be reasonably temperate. The star is called LP 890-9 — the LP stands for Luyten/Palomar; Using the Large Telescope, astronomer Willem Luyten mapped and […]]]>

Very cool exoplanet news, literally: Two super-Earth planets have been found around a red dwarf star, and one of them is the right distance from its star to – maybe – be reasonably temperate.

The star is called LP 890-9 — the LP stands for Luyten/Palomar; Using the Large Telescope, astronomer Willem Luyten mapped and cataloged thousands of nearby stars. LP 890-9 is a very small star, a red dwarf with only 1/9e of the mass of the Sun and 1/6e its diameter. Its temperature is only 2,580°C (4,670°F), much colder than that of the Sun, and it emits an incredibly small amount of 0.1% light compared to the Sun. At 100 light years, relatively close, it is so faint that you need a large telescope to see it [link to paper].

The first planet, LP 890-9b, was discovered by TESS, the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, which scans the entire sky looking at thousands of stars. If we happen to see a star with a planet orbiting sideways from our vantage point, once per orbit it blocks out some of the starlight, an event called a transit. Knowing the size of the star, measuring the amount of light blocked gives the size of the planet.

In this case, TESS saw a dip in light, but the uncertainty was high, so astronomers followed up with SPECULOOS telescopes. That means Ssearch for living quarters Planets THISlips ULtra-cOOI Stars, a project designed to examine weak red dwarfs for planets. Observations from SPECULOOS nailed the transit, seeing a 1% dip in starlight, indicating the planet is 1.32 times the diameter of Earth. This makes it a super-Earth, a planet larger than ours but still much smaller than Neptune, the next largest planet in our solar system.

It orbits its star once every 2.73 days, which means it is within 3 million kilometers of the star. Is it close. Still, the star is a dim light bulb, so the planet only gets about four times as much energy from the star as we get from the Sun, making it probably around 120°C (250°F). ). Not habitable from a distance.

This is where it gets fun. SPECULOOS observations have indicated that there is a second planet orbiting LP 890-9. Called LP 890-9c, it is about 1.37 times the diameter of Earth, or about 17,500 km wide: another super-Earth.

It is also in a wider orbit, taking 8.46 days to orbit the star at a distance of around 6 million kilometers. Still close, but again the star is cold, so the planet’s temperature may be 0°C (30°F) warmer. Yes, it may sound cold, but Earth’s temperature without greenhouse gases would be even colder! So if this planet is rocky and has a hint of carbon dioxide in its atmosphere, it might actually be temperate.

The problem is that we don’t know what the masses of either planet are. It’s needed to find their densities, and it gives us a good idea of ​​what they’re made of. A gas giant has an average density close to that of water, while a rocky/metallic planet like Earth has a density more than 5 times greater. A lower density could also indicate that it is an aquatic world.

The mass of an exoplanet can be found using the radial velocity method, but it’s difficult to use on really faint stars. Perhaps larger telescopes could be used to gather enough light to make these observations, but it takes months of observations to accumulate enough data. So it may take some time.

But it should be done. LP 890-9c is, on paper, perhaps the second-best candidate to resemble Earth, after TRAPPIST-1e, an Earth-sized planet orbiting the tiny red dwarf star TRAPPIST-1. This star is the coolest known to have planets, and LP 890-9 is the second coolest.

This makes LP 890-9c an excellent target for JWST observations, to see if it has an atmosphere and perhaps work out what’s in it. This has already been done for TRAPPIST-1e, although the results have not yet been published. Yet, in our search for other Earths, they are excellent starting points.

I love it when you find planets around red dwarfs. They are by far the most common type of star in the universe, they tend to make smaller, Earth-sized planets, and they tend to make a lot of them. Our own world may be an exception in its class, orbiting a white G dwarf and not a red M dwarf.

The Universe may be filled with rocky worlds orbiting small, faint stars. And we are only just beginning to find them.

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The sky this week from September 9 to 16 https://sinia-planeta.com/the-sky-this-week-from-september-9-to-16/ Fri, 09 Sep 2022 12:01:39 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/the-sky-this-week-from-september-9-to-16/ Sunday September 11 The Moon passes 1.8° south of Jupiter at 11:00 a.m. EDT. This evening, our satellite has moved towards Cetus and is 6.5° east of the gas giant two hours after sunset. As the bright Moon rises in the east, let’s turn our gaze to the west. There you will find Vega of […]]]>

Sunday September 11

The Moon passes 1.8° south of Jupiter at 11:00 a.m. EDT. This evening, our satellite has moved towards Cetus and is 6.5° east of the gas giant two hours after sunset.

As the bright Moon rises in the east, let’s turn our gaze to the west. There you will find Vega of magnitude 0, which ranks as the fifth brightest star in the sky. Less than 2° northeast of Vega is Epsilon (ϵ) Lyrae, also known as the Double Double Star. Indeed, when viewed through a telescope at 75x or greater magnification, this single bright spot splits into two distinct pairs of stars. The northern pair is cataloged as Epsilon1, while the southern pair is Epsilon2. Epsilon1 is composed of two stars of magnitudes 5.1 and 6, separated by 2.6″; Epsilon2 contains stars of magnitudes 5.1 and 5.4, separated by 2.3″. See if you can capture both pairs with bright Vega in a single field of view.

Sunrise: 06:37
Sunset: 7:15 p.m.
Moonrise: 8:15 p.m.
Moon setting: 7:50 am
Moon phase: Waning gibbous (98%)

monday september 12
Orion and his two trusty hounds stand high in the early morning sky. An hour before sunrise, look east to find the familiar three-star asterism in Orion’s belt, along with its trusty sword hanging about 3.7° south of the outermost star. east of the belt, magnitude 1.7 Alnitak. The sword, which appears out of focus to most people, contains the famous Orion Nebula (M42), a rich region of nearby star formation that is absolutely stunning through a telescope. Even with the waning gibbous Moon in the sky, it’s worth a look if you have a medium or even small telescope.

Some 30° east of Orion’s belt is Canis Minor, Orion’s smallest hunting dog. The brightest star in this constellation is Procyon of magnitude 0.4, which marks the little dog’s nose. Just 11.4 light years away, Procyon is the eighth brightest star in the sky.

Let’s slide up this chart and then visit Sirius, the brightest star in the sky. Also called the Dog Star, this luminary marks the nose of Canis Major the Big Dog and lies nearly 26° southwest of Procyon. With a Greek name that literally means ‘burning’ or ‘scorching’, you can’t miss this magnitude -1.4 star! But there’s something else you couldn’t miss: So close to the horizon, Sirius can seem to flicker violently or dance in place. Turn binoculars or a telescope over it, and you can even see it change color, shimmering as if looking at it through a kaleidoscope. This effect, called scintillation, occurs when you observe starlight through Earth’s turbulent atmosphere, blurring your view. The brighter a star and the closer it is to the horizon, the greater the effect.

Sunrise: 06:38
Sunset: 7:14 p.m.
Moonrise: 8:39 p.m.
Moon setting: 8:59
Moon phase: Waning gibbous (93%)

tuesday september 13
While the Double Double we observed in Lyra earlier this week required a telescope to fully separate, tonight we’re going to test your naked-eye skills. First, find the Big Dipper, that famous Ursa Major asterism to the north. Early in the evening, it is upright and swaying under Polaris, the North Star. Locate the last star at the end of the Big Dipper’s handle – it’s Alkaid, also known as Eta (η) Ursae Majoris.

Now look for a star inside, the “kink” in the handle. Do you see a star or two? The obvious bright star that most people recognize in the handful is Mizar of magnitude 2.3. But just under 12 feet to the northeast is Alcor of magnitude 4 – much fainter, but still visible to the naked eye. Some people like to use this widely separated pair as a visual acuity test. How do you score?

Mizar and Alcor can see close in the sky, but they are not considered a binary pair. This is because they are separated by a full light year, so they cannot be linked and orbit around each other. Nonetheless, they appear to be related, as the two travel together across the galaxy in the same direction and at the same speed, with several other stars in the Big Dipper that together form the Ursa Major Moving Group.

Sunrise: 06:39
Sunset: 7:12 p.m.
Moonrise: 9:05 p.m.
Moon setting: 10:07
Moon phase: Waning gibbous (87%)

Wednesday September 14
The Moon passes 0.8° north of Uranus at 7:00 p.m. EDT. If you want to try and spot the pair, you’ll have to wait until they come up after dark, located in Aries the Ram. The Moon is now just under 3.5° east of the ice giant, whose magnitude 5.7 glow can be a bit difficult to spot with binoculars or a telescope with our satellite so close. However, that doesn’t stop you from trying to spot the grayish 4-inch-wide disc of Uranus to the west of the Moon.

According to NASA, today also begins the shortest solar day of the year. While days on Earth are always considered to be 24 hours long, the length of the solar day – defined as the time between two successive times when the Sun is highest in the sky – varies throughout the year. . The shortest day, as measured between two consecutive solar noons, usually occurs in September, and this year begins at solar noon today and ends at solar noon tomorrow. Its duration is 23 hours, 59 minutes and 38.6 seconds.

Sunrise: 6:40 a.m.
Sunset: 7:10 p.m.
Moonrise: 9:33 p.m.
Moon setting: 11:14 a.m.
Moon phase: Waning gibbous (80%)

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The sky this week from September 2 to 9 https://sinia-planeta.com/the-sky-this-week-from-september-2-to-9/ Fri, 02 Sep 2022 15:43:18 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/the-sky-this-week-from-september-2-to-9/ monday september 5Comet C/2017 K2 (PanSTARRS) is still the brightest comet in the sky, currently observed around magnitude 9 – slightly fainter than expected, although of course comets are notoriously UNpredictable. Still, you can catch it with a telescope under good skies, and you’ll want to start early: about 15 minutes after nautical twilight if […]]]>

monday september 5
Comet C/2017 K2 (PanSTARRS) is still the brightest comet in the sky, currently observed around magnitude 9 – slightly fainter than expected, although of course comets are notoriously UNpredictable. Still, you can catch it with a telescope under good skies, and you’ll want to start early: about 15 minutes after nautical twilight if possible. This is because the comet moved from Ophiuchus towards Scorpius, closer to the southwestern horizon.

Tonight, the comet lies almost between Pi (π) and Delta (δ) Scorpii, at the center of a small triangle formed by three 5th magnitude field stars. Drop just 2.2° south-southeast of Delta to find it. Compare the comet’s round, fuzzy coma to M80, a globular cluster located 2.7° north of Sigma (σ) Scorpii. The light from the globular cluster, full of ancient stars, should appear slightly warmer than that from the comet.

While you’re in the area, be sure to enjoy the warm ruby ​​glow of Antares, the famous heart of Scorpio. This star is so named because its nickname means “rival of Mars” – both appear similar in color to the human eye, although Antares’ light comes from within, while Mars’ is only sunlight reflecting on rusty ground.

Sunrise: 06:31
Sunset: 7:25 p.m.
Moonrise: 4:35 p.m.
Moon setting: 00:29
Moon phase: Waxing Gibber (72%)

tuesday september 6
A gibbous moon tonight sits right in the middle of the teapot handle, a famous asterism in Sagittarius the Archer. Nevertheless, we will try our luck to find the Dumbbell Nebula (M27), not far from Vulpecula the Fox. The easiest way to locate this planetary nebula is to look about 3° north of magnitude 3.5 Gamma Sagittae, the brightest star in nearby Sagitta the Arrow.

Normally you could see the Dumbbell well with binoculars, thanks to its apparent size and brightness: about 8′ by 6′ and its magnitude 7. But with the Moon nearby, a telescope might be better to bring out this target this evening. So called because of its apparent hourglass or dumbbell shape in a larger, more diffused spherical glow, M27 may appear simply rectangular with hints of tapered waistline, depending on the size of your aperture and, temporarily, the l glare of the Moon. If you want to bring out more detail, just be patient and wait for the Moon to move away and start to wane again, then come back to revisit that area of ​​the sky and then compare the view.

Sunrise: 06:32
Sunset: 7:24 p.m.
Moonrise: 5:31 p.m.
Moon setting: 1h35
Moon phase: Waxing Gibber (82%)

Wednesday, September 7
Asteroid 3 Juno reaches opposition at 1:00 p.m. EDT in Aquarius, which means it’s visible all night from dusk to dawn. The main-belt world lies 4° northwest of 4th magnitude Phi (ϕ) Aquarii and shines at magnitude 7.7. It’s bright enough to be picked up with binoculars or any small scope. It is just over half the distance between two field stars, one of 7th magnitude and the other of 9th magnitude. (Juno is closer to the fainter star.)

If you want a slightly brighter target, you don’t have to go far: 4 Vesta is now 6th magnitude and also swims through Aquarius, albeit on the southern side of the constellation and much closer to it. current location of the Moon. Descend about 7.2° directly to the horizon from Deneb Algedi in Capricorn to find it. Again, the nearby Moon can make it difficult to spot this brighter asteroid, so if you’re feeling frustrated, wait about half a week and the Moon will have moved, although both asteroids have also moved a bit. See September’s Asteroid Locations section sky this month for a chart showing how to find Vesta all month.

The Moon reaches the closest point to Earth in its orbit, called perigee, at 2:19 p.m. EDT. At that time, our satellite will be 226,485 miles (364,492 kilometers) from us.

Sunrise: 06:33
Sunset: 7:22 p.m.
Moonrise: 6:16 p.m.
Moon setting: 02:48
Moon phase: Waxing Gibber (90%)

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Explained: Everything You Need To Know About Artemis 1 https://sinia-planeta.com/explained-everything-you-need-to-know-about-artemis-1/ Thu, 01 Sep 2022 21:32:29 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/explained-everything-you-need-to-know-about-artemis-1/ But why are we going back to the Moon anyway? We went there, didn’t we? Our understanding of the Moon today is very different from that of the era of Apollo. Once thought to be dry, scientists have found that the Moon has extensive deposits of water ice, particularly at the south pole, near which […]]]>

But why are we going back to the Moon anyway? We went there, didn’t we?

Our understanding of the Moon today is very different from that of the era of Apollo. Once thought to be dry, scientists have found that the Moon has extensive deposits of water ice, particularly at the south pole, near which Artemis 3 is about to land. There, water ice has accumulated over billions of years from various sources, kept stable in permanently shaded regions (PSR). However, at the edge of some craters in the polar region, the sun shines almost constantly. It’s the perfect combination of power for solar panels and water for drinking, producing oxygen, and making rocket fuel. In 2024, NASA will send a rover called VIPER (Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover) to this region to explore what is sure to be a spectacular landscape.

Finding water on the Moon has the potential to be a game-changer. NASA’s current mantra for crewed exploration is “Moon to Mars.” By using water ice on the Moon, NASA hopes to learn how to “live off the land” in an environment with lots of radiation, large temperature differences, unpleasant dust, and more – a land of training to live on Mars.

Some advocate that astronauts settle in pits of lunar lava, safe from many of these dangers. It would be a high-tech throwback to our species’ cave-dwelling roots as we plan forays into the Red Planet, perhaps fueled by lunar ice turned into rocket fuel.

But NASA’s goals aren’t just regulations, they’re also scientific. The Moon’s water holds clues to our solar system’s ancient past, and the surface offers places for special types of work. The far side is perfect for radio astronomy. In the shelter of Earth, it’s very, very quiet there.

NASA is not alone in this rush for the Moon. Private companies send robotic missions. And Russia and China are collaborating on plans for a moon base and a space station. China is moving forward, having demonstrated real capabilities to develop a serious space exploration program. It’s not quite the Cold War, but it has caught Washington’s attention.

How do we do this?

With rockets, of course!

But seriously, NASA is partnering with other countries and agencies, including ESA, whose service module for Orion serves as the spacecraft’s power and support vehicle. NASA touts its global partnerships, and several countries have signed the Artemis Accords, pledging to cooperate and carefully manage the Moon and space environment.

Not everyone thinks that’s enough to prevent overuse, unnecessary scarring of an ancient world, or even conflict and hostilities with other players. Many political and legal reflections are underway.

Proponents believe that Artemis may be our first baby step – if not giant leaps – to becoming a multiplanetary species while benefiting our homeworld through innovation and perhaps even showing us more ways. co-operatives to live together.

How to follow the mission?

This is the easiest question of all. Your best bet is NASA TV, which will begin coverage a few hours before the first launch window. You can find it on the NASA website and on YouTube. NASA will also cover Orion’s first outbound trajectory burn later tonight; a full schedule of scheduled programming is on the NASA site.

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JWST detects for the first time carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of an exoplanet https://sinia-planeta.com/jwst-detects-for-the-first-time-carbon-dioxide-in-the-atmosphere-of-an-exoplanet/ Thu, 01 Sep 2022 17:06:43 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/jwst-detects-for-the-first-time-carbon-dioxide-in-the-atmosphere-of-an-exoplanet/ This migration has left fingerprints in all the atmospheres of the planets, as both worlds have recovered planetesimals charged with heavy elements – small solid bodies present in the protoplanetary disks around young stars – which are only located closer to the planet. Sun. Some of these bodies dissolved in the atmosphere of our gas […]]]>

This migration has left fingerprints in all the atmospheres of the planets, as both worlds have recovered planetesimals charged with heavy elements – small solid bodies present in the protoplanetary disks around young stars – which are only located closer to the planet. Sun. Some of these bodies dissolved in the atmosphere of our gas giants, enriching them with heavy elements.

If WASP-39 has a similar composition to Saturn, that would suggest that it too experienced such a migration before settling in its current orbit. “[Previously,] we haven’t had much success because our instruments didn’t have the sensitivity, the wavelength coverage, the precision to really give us that information,” says Bean. “And so, we kind of stumbled in the dark about that.”

But JWST is finally opening the metaphorical blinds. Although more data still needs to be analyzed, the new data seems to indicate that WASP-39b is comparable to Saturn, according to Bean.

Migration is not the only explanation for how the atmosphere of WASP-39 b could have been seeded with a heavy element like CO2, Nevertheless. It’s possible that, while still young, the world was beset by comets and asteroids – an upbringing also comparable to Saturn.


More soon

In addition to having implications for the origins of WASP-39b, the JWST also teases another mystery – another type of molecule whose presence cannot be explained as easily as CO2.

Knowing the temperature, pressure, and elemental abundances of a planet’s atmosphere, scientists can usually calculate a good estimate of the world’s expected chemistry. But the unidentified spectral feature goes beyond what the model suggested, indicating that other atmospheric phenomena create the mystery molecule.

“It’s a subtle spectral feature,” says Bean, which is why the team takes its time to analyze all the data before sharing their findings. But ultimately, “we wouldn’t have put him in the paper if we didn’t have a lot of faith in him.”

JWST doesn’t just focus on the mysteries of WASP-39b either. Or even just giant planets, for that matter.

Now that JWST has proven its capability, researchers will use the observatory to peer into more Earth-like worlds. Although the level of detail achievable for a rocky planet is significantly less than for a giant planet, the confidence gained from observing planets like WASP-39 b will influence the confidence in the telescope and its instruments when observing worlds. rocky. .

“I think most people, given the choice [between WASP-39 b and Trappist-1 c] they would probably pick Trappist-1c,” says Bean, referring to a rocky Venus-like world about 40 light-years away. But “everything is connected for me,” he says. “We have to understand [WASP-39 b] at the same time you have to understand [Trappist-1 c]because the unifying factor is planets with atmospheres, our observing techniques and how we interpret that.

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