Solar system – Sinia Planeta http://sinia-planeta.com/ Tue, 20 Sep 2022 01:48:16 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://sinia-planeta.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/icon-50-120x120.png Solar system – Sinia Planeta http://sinia-planeta.com/ 32 32 Star Talks: ASU explores the solar system https://sinia-planeta.com/star-talks-asu-explores-the-solar-system/ Mon, 19 Sep 2022 21:01:04 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/star-talks-asu-explores-the-solar-system/ Profile Please join Dr. David Williams for a lecture focused on current missions in which ASU faculty and students are involved, which explore the planets, moons, and asteroids of our solar system. Arizona State University (Phoenix), along with the University of Arizona (Tucson), are two of the top universities offering planetary science programs for 40 […]]]>
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Please join Dr. David Williams for a lecture focused on current missions in which ASU faculty and students are involved, which explore the planets, moons, and asteroids of our solar system. Arizona State University (Phoenix), along with the University of Arizona (Tucson), are two of the top universities offering planetary science programs for 40 years.

ASU has traditionally focused on planetary geology, and many of our faculty have been involved in NASA planetary missions dating back to the Apollo program of the 1960s-70s. David A. Williams is a research professor in the School of Earth and Space Exploration and director of the Ronald Greeley Center for Planetary Studies, NASA’s regional center for planetary information at ASU. He is also the director of NASA’s Planetary Wind Laboratory at the Ames Research Center in California. He participated in NASA’s Magellan mission to Venus, the Galileo mission to Jupiter, and the Dawn mission to the asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres.

He is a co-investigator of the European Space Agency’s Mars Express orbiter mission. He is a past chair of the Planetary Geology Division of the Geological Society of America (GSA), and in 2014 was elected a Fellow of the GSA. In 2017, he received the Ronald Greeley Distinguished Service Award from the Planetary Geology Division of the Geological Society of America. He is a former Secretary of the Planetary Science Section of the American Geophysical Union. Details for Zoom to come.

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BA campus hosting a scale model of the solar system | Local News https://sinia-planeta.com/ba-campus-hosting-a-scale-model-of-the-solar-system-local-news/ Tue, 13 Sep 2022 22:45:00 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/ba-campus-hosting-a-scale-model-of-the-solar-system-local-news/ BROKEN ARROW — Instead of waiting for Artemis to launch later this month, residents of Broken Arrow can hang out outside Creekwood Elementary School if they want to visit the moon. Joined by city leaders and officials from Broken Arrow Public Schools, a group of retired and current teachers officially unveiled a model of the […]]]>

BROKEN ARROW — Instead of waiting for Artemis to launch later this month, residents of Broken Arrow can hang out outside Creekwood Elementary School if they want to visit the moon.

Joined by city leaders and officials from Broken Arrow Public Schools, a group of retired and current teachers officially unveiled a model of the solar system along Albany Street on Tuesday as part of the National Center for Earth and Space Science Education.

The exhibit is built on a scale of 1 to 10 billion of the solar system, with the walkway spanning approximately 2,000 feet from its entry point near the sun to its exit just beyond Pluto. In addition to scale models of the planets, sun, and asteroid belt, Voyage exhibits include informative storyboards with QR codes to further educate visitors about astronomy.

The Broken Arrow model extends east along Albany Street, with the sun, represented by a golden sphere the size of a grapefruit, at the west end of the Creekwood campus and Pluto at the exterior of Broken Arrow High School.

People also read…

Voyage’s original model was installed on the National Mall in Washington, DC, in October 2001. Similar models are already in place in Kansas City, Missouri; Houston; Boulder, Colorado; and Corpus Christi, Texas. However, the Broken Arrow model has a distinct feature that others cannot claim.

“We are the only community that has fully paid for this with core funding,” said planning committee member Steve Cowen. “Everyone else had at least one corporate or university sponsor.”

For Matt Montgomery, Tuesday’s grand opening had added significance. His mother, Sandy Montgomery, a retired BAPS teacher, was one of the organizers of the project. She died in May and one of the planets, Jupiter, is named in her honor.

“It was his passion,” he said. “She had a lot of joy and juice with the people she worked with…and a lot of inspiration from them who helped drive her. It was very important to her. She also loved children, so it’s a fitting ending for her not to be here. She wanted to see the end of it… but it’s still good that it’s happening. She would be very happy.

Video: Cal Ripken Jr. and Devon Energy team up to open STEM centers in Tulsa.

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Our solar system’s orbit through the Milky Way helped form Earth’s first continents https://sinia-planeta.com/our-solar-systems-orbit-through-the-milky-way-helped-form-earths-first-continents/ Tue, 06 Sep 2022 16:02:02 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/our-solar-systems-orbit-through-the-milky-way-helped-form-earths-first-continents/ The transit of our solar system through the spiral arms of the Milky Way. Major geologic events are displayed on the overlay timeline to highlight the increased frequency of events associated with passing through dense star regions. The + indicates the number of passages of the Earth in the spiral arm. Credit: Kirkland et al., […]]]>

The transit of our solar system through the spiral arms of the Milky Way. Major geologic events are displayed on the overlay timeline to highlight the increased frequency of events associated with passing through dense star regions. The + indicates the number of passages of the Earth in the spiral arm. Credit: Kirkland et al., 2022.

Earth is unique among planets known to have continents, and their formation has fundamentally influenced the habitability of our planet. It is generally accepted that the Earth’s continental crust was formed by internal processes. However, new research from a team at Curtin University challenges that theory by attributing the incipient formation of continents to high-energy comets bombarding early Earth.

Led by Chris Kirkland, the team studied the mineral zircon from Earth’s oldest continents, the North American Craton in Greenland and the Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. Crystals were mined from cratons because they are the oldest and most stable parts of a continent. Zircon crystals are ideal timekeepers because they contain trace amounts of uranium (U), isotopes that decay at a known rate to become lead (Pb). When zircon is analyzed, the amount of Pb produced by the decay of U corresponds to the time that has elapsed since the crystallization of the zircon. Additionally, hafnium (Hf) isotopes in zircon follow episodic influxes of magma that contribute to the formation of continents. Analyzes of U decay reveal that the two cratons formed between 2.8 and 3.8 billion years ago, while analysis of the time spectrum of Hf isotopes shows that they have underwent periods of increased continental crust formation every ~170 to 200 million years. This periodicity corresponds to the “galactic year”, which is the time required for the Sun to orbit around the Milky Way galaxy. During this orbit, our solar system moves through the spiral arms of the Milky Way, where star density is high, resulting in an increased frequency of comet bombardments on Earth. Kirkland and his team hypothesize that when these high-energy comets hit Earth, they initiate increased melting in the mantle, acting as nuclei for the formation of new continental crust. These findings oppose the mainstream theory that the Earth formed in isolation and present an exciting connection between Earth’s geological processes and the motion of our solar system. READ MORE

This entry was posted in Science News and tagged Earth on by Planetary News Contributor.

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Mission live on mars https://sinia-planeta.com/mission-live-on-mars/ Tue, 06 Sep 2022 04:12:35 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/mission-live-on-mars/ The solar system consists of a star called ‘Sun’ with ‘nine planets’ spinning and rotating around it. The planets in our solar system are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. At the advanced level, the solar system includes the satellites of the planets; numerous comets, asteroids, meteoroids and the interplanetary medium. […]]]>

The solar system consists of a star called ‘Sun’ with ‘nine planets’ spinning and rotating around it. The planets in our solar system are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. At the advanced level, the solar system includes the satellites of the planets; numerous comets, asteroids, meteoroids and the interplanetary medium.

The Sun is the main source of electromagnetic energy (mainly in the form of heat and light) in the solar system. The closest known stellar neighbor to the Sun is a red dwarf star called Proxima Centauri, at a distance of 4.3 light years. A light year is a unit of astronomical distance equivalent to the distance traveled by light in one year, or 6 trillion miles or 9.6 trillion km.

The entire solar system, along with local stars visible on a clear night, orbits the center of our home galaxy, a spiraling disk of 200 billion stars we call the Milky Way. The Milky Way has two small galaxies orbiting nearby, which are visible from the southern hemisphere. They are called the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Small Magellanic Cloud. The nearest large galaxy is the Andromeda galaxy. It is a spiral galaxy like the Milky Way but it is 4 times more massive and is 2 million light-years away.

Our galaxy, one of billions of known galaxies, travels through intergalactic space. Planets, most satellites of planets, and asteroids revolve around the Sun in the same direction, in nearly circular orbits. Looking from above at the North Pole of the Sun, the planets orbit counter-clockwise. The planets orbit the Sun in or near the same plane called the ecliptic. Pluto is a special case in that its orbit is the most inclined (18 degrees) and the most elliptical of all the planets.

Therefore, on part of its orbit, Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune. The axis of rotation of most planets is almost perpendicular to the ecliptic. The exceptions are Uranus and Pluto, which are tilted sideways. The mystery of this space science is certainly beyond human comprehension and certainly beyond the scope of this column. Scientists, over the years, strive to uncover these mysteries, but instead uncover more mysteries, a case of “the more you look, the less you understand”. You can only marvel at the supreme and perfect design of the cosmos.

Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are the four innermost planets of the solar system. They are called telluric planets because of their compact and rocky surfaces. The planets, Venus, Earth and Mars have significant atmospheres while Mercury has almost none. The other planets; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are called the Jovian planets (similar to Jupiter). This is because they are all gigantic compared to our planet, Earth, and have a gaseous nature like that of Jupiter. The Jovian planets are also called the gas giants, although some or all of them may have small solid cores.

Over the past five decades, myriad space explorers have emerged from Earth’s atmosphere to discover our planetary neighbors and their many satellites.
My article on “Apollo II: Marking 60 years of man’s land romance with space” published on September 2, 2021 discussed the successful manned planetary mission to the moon. The United States’ Apollo program landed people on the moon.

Six missions landed men on the Moon, beginning with Apollo 11 in July 1969. Apollo 13 was supposed to land, but could not due to a malfunction on board the spacecraft. All nine manned missions returned safely to Earth. The leading countries in space technologies are the United States, Russia, China, Japan and India. While the United States focused on the manned Apollo program, the Soviet Union focused on unmanned missions that deployed rovers and returned samples to Earth. Three rover missions were launched, two of which were successful, and eleven sample return flights were attempted with three successes. After recording successes on the lunar mission, the next challenge faced by astronomers is the “mission to mars”.

Mars is the next single destination after the lunar mission for scientific discovery and robotic and human exploration as we expand our presence in the solar system. The formation and evolution of Mars are comparable to those of Earth; therefore, the scientific study of Mars can help us learn more about the history and future of our own planet. Already some of the observations on Mars show conditions suitable for life in its past. Future exploration may uncover evidence of the fundamental mysteries of human existence and the galaxies. This is why human attention has focused on Mars for the past 50 years.

As mentioned, Mars is the fourth planet from the sun and the second smallest planet in the solar system, after Mercury. It is sometimes called the “red planet” because of the iron oxide present on its surface, which gives it a reddish appearance. Mars, one of the terrestrial planets, has a thin atmosphere, with surface features reminiscent of both the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts and polar caps of Earth.

The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are similar to those of Earth. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and the second highest known mountain in the solar system. The smooth Borealis Basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and can be a giant impact feature. Mars has two moons orbiting it, Phobos and Deimos, they are small and irregularly shaped. These could be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Martian Trojan.

Physically, Mars is about half the diameter of Earth, and its area is only slightly smaller than the total area of ​​Earth’s dry land. Mars is less dense than Earth, having about 15% of Earth’s volume and 11% of Earth’s mass, resulting in about 38% of Earth’s surface gravity. Studies have revealed that the reddish-orange appearance of the Martian surface is caused by iron(III) oxide.

The space station is also advancing our understanding of how the body changes in space and how to protect the health of astronauts. Is the mission of man to Mars possible?

(To be continued next week)

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Will the Earth de-orbit from the solar system? An aerospace engineer shares his explanation https://sinia-planeta.com/will-the-earth-de-orbit-from-the-solar-system-an-aerospace-engineer-shares-his-explanation/ Sun, 04 Sep 2022 16:22:36 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/will-the-earth-de-orbit-from-the-solar-system-an-aerospace-engineer-shares-his-explanation/ Will the Earth de-orbit from the solar system? This is one of the things that can end the life of the planet. (Photo: NASA Photo/Newsmakers)A view of Earth appears above the lunar horizon as the Apollo 11 command module comes into view of the Moon before Astronatus Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin Jr. depart in […]]]>

Will the Earth de-orbit from the solar system? This is one of the things that can end the life of the planet.

(Photo: NASA Photo/Newsmakers)
A view of Earth appears above the lunar horizon as the Apollo 11 command module comes into view of the Moon before Astronatus Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin Jr. depart in the lunar module, Eagle , to become the first men to walk on the surface of the Moon.

Over the past few years, many people have speculated that the Earth may be drifting off its correct orbital path. However, many experts have dismissed this idea.

But, the book by Liu Cixin, a science fiction writer, explained why the planet could propel itself out of the solar system.

In his book titled “The Wandering EarthCixin said world leaders would make efforts to deorbit the Earth to avoid a dangerous solar flare.

Matteo Ceriotti, an aerospace engineer at Gaslow University, said that’s unlikely to happen.

Will the Earth de-orbit from the solar system?

According Espace.ComIn his latest report, Ceriotti said that while it’s unlikely to happen, there’s still a chance Earth could de-orbit from the solar system.

Will the Earth de-orbit from the solar system?  An aerospace engineer shares his explanation

(Photo: NASA Photo via Getty Images)
In this image provided by NASA, the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis and its vertical stabilizer cross Earth’s horizon on Flight Day 2 May 14, 2010 in space. This is the last scheduled mission for Atlantis and it will dock with the International Space Station to deliver a payload from a new Russian compartment and new batteries.

Read also : [LOOK] Russian cosmonauts to install upgrades for robotic arm following spacesuit issue weeks ago

He even provided a theory for how the planet can stray from its orbital path.

“Earth could be pulled out of orbit by the action of a massive interstellar object, flying through interstellar space and entering the solar system and passing close to Earth,” the systems engineering professor said. spatial.

He added that Earth and the giant space body may have a close encounter called a “flyby.”

During this event, it is possible that the plant and the interstellar object exchange momentum and energy.

After that, Earth’s orbit will likely be disrupted. Of course, this remains a theory as there is no solid evidence that it can happen.

Possible things to affect Earth’s orbit

The National Air and Space Museum explained that various factors could affect Earth’s orbit. One of them is the weakening of the sun’s gravity.

As of this writing, all of the planets in the solar system orbit the sun. But, like other stars, experts said the sun could slowly decrease in mass, weakening its gravitational pull.

Apart from this, a large object, such as an asteroid, can also cause Earth to deorbit. If the speed and force implemented by the celestial body during the impact are sufficient, it can move the Earth away from its original orbital path.

In other stories, China’s nuclear space reactor is expected to power around 10 international space stations.

Meanwhile, NASA’s Artemis 1 mission could draw a massive crowd of 400,000.

For more news on Earth and other space topics, keep your tabs open here on TechTimes.

Related article: Earth’s days are getting ‘strangely longer’ and scientists are confused

This article belongs to TechTimes

Written by: Griffin Davis

ⓒ 2022 TECHTIMES.com All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

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Scientists explore large explosions in the solar system – asteroids, churning landmasses, etc. https://sinia-planeta.com/scientists-explore-large-explosions-in-the-solar-system-asteroids-churning-landmasses-etc/ Sun, 04 Sep 2022 10:43:11 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/scientists-explore-large-explosions-in-the-solar-system-asteroids-churning-landmasses-etc/ At a moment ofin the history of the earth, the elemental forces lifted the great continental masses in the direction of the equator. This change was so colossal that it was as if Boston was being dragged to zero latitude – a distance of over 1,600 miles. This massive change happened 800 million years ago, […]]]>

At a moment ofin the history of the earth, the elemental forces lifted the great continental masses in the direction of the equator. This change was so colossal that it was as if Boston was being dragged to zero latitude – a distance of over 1,600 miles.

This massive change happened 800 million years ago, explained Adam Maloof, associate professor of geosciences at Princeton University, in an interview with NPR. Its speed of about 20 inches (50 centimeters) per day is breakneck speed in geology. This is about five times faster than the speed at which the earth’s crust moves today.

He said that the globe, as it rotates, shifts its weight toward the equator to maintain balance, while the crust slides sideways: “The core of the Earth, the outer part, is actually fluid iron, and it has about the viscosity of water.”

This explains one of the many times the universe exploded. Far more significant others have occurred beyond our earthly realm.

(Rost9/Shutterstock)

On a more macro scale, Scientists in recent years have discovered that the solar system has been much less stable since birth than once thought.

In 2006, the Stardust space probe brought fascinating material back to Earth collected by comet Wild 2. Scientists expected to find substances formed far from the sun – “cold” material – but instead discovered that there was of material forged both near and far from the sun.

The startling implications were that matter formed in abundance in the inner solar system but was thrown out to the solar system’s periphery.

And even more calamitous theories exist regarding planetary catastrophes.

Exploded planet hypothesis

Astronomer Tom Van Flandern counts these findings from Wild 2 as supporting evidence for what is known as the Exploded Planet Hypothesis. He said that over the 4.6 billion year history of the solar system, some of its planets have been destroyed in large-scale explosions.

This is a controversial assumption. Van Flandern had been pressured by his colleagues to drop him. He came to support this theory after beginning research intended to discredit it. Receive his doctorate. in astronomy from Yale, he worked for 20 years at the US Naval Observatory, where he became head of the celestial mechanics branch, before beginning independent research on his most controversial subjects.

Epoch Times Photo
(Alexyz3d/Shutterstock)

In an article published in the International Journal of Astrobiology in 2007, titled “The Challenge of the Exploded Planet Hypothesishe listed some predictions made by this hypothesis, which turned out to be true, including: “(1) asteroid satellites; (2) satellites of comets; (3) salt water in meteorites; (4) “rolling marks” leading to rocks on asteroids; (5) the peak time and rate of the 1999 Leonid meteor storm; (6) explosion signatures for asteroids; (7) the highly doped energy parameter for new comets; (8) the distribution of dark matter on slowly rotating airless bodies; (9) comet splitting velocities.

Some of the objections to this theory assume that the mass of said exploded planets is missing from the representation of matter in our solar system. Van Flandern refutes this by stating, “Consider what would happen if the Earth exploded today. Surface and crustal rocks would shatter and fragment, but would still be rocks. However, rocks from depths greater than about 40km [24 miles] are under such high temperature pressure that if suddenly released into a vacuum, these rocks would vaporize. As a result, more than 99% of Earth’s total mass would vaporize in an explosion, with only its crustal and upper layers of low-pressure mantle surviving.

“More than 99% of Earth’s total mass would vaporize in an explosion, with only its crustal and upper layers of low-pressure mantle surviving.”

—Tom Van Flandernastronomer

While some explanations for exactly how these explosions occurred are unclear, Van Flandern points out that we are no longer certain how the widely accepted phenomenon of “late heavy bombardment” occurred. Which brings us to our next great cataclysm.

Late heavy bombardment

Shortly after the formation of the major planets, a surprisingly large number of asteroids are believed to have collided with terrestrial planets, including Earth.

Paul Weissman of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory wrote in his article “The impact history of the solar system: implications for the origin of atmospheresthat “a plausible explanation for the late heavy bombardment remains a mystery”.

Epoch Times Photo
Artistic representation of the moon during the late heavy bombardment. (Tim Wetherell/Australian National University/CC BY-SA 3.0)

Van Flandern says, “The late heavy bombardment, a true solar system event, resembles an early planetary explosion event.”

According to NASA, this planetary migration may have caused the late heavy bombardment.

Planets in motion

According to NASA: “A model for our own solar system suggests that the orbits of our giant planets changed dramatically early in the solar system’s history, with Jupiter’s orbit migrating slightly inward to sun, and those of Saturn, Neptune and Uranus extending farther from the sun.These dramatic movements gave us the order of the planets and smaller bodies we know today, and caused the scattering of many bodies smaller (like comets).

Epoch Times Photo
A photo of Neptune and its moon, Triton, taken by Voyager 2. Triton’s orbit will eventually take it into Neptune’s Roche boundary, tearing it apart and potentially forming a new ring system. (Nasa)
Epoch Times Photo
Meteor Crater in Arizona, created 50,000 years ago by an impactor just 160 feet (50 meters) in diameter, proves that the accretion of the solar system is not over. (D. Roddy/US Geological Survey)

The attractive forces of cosmic bodies beyond our solar system continue to cause changes in the alignment of the planets, however slow and minute these changes may seem to us.

The turbulent history of our planet, moon and solar system is still being explored and revealed by scientists. Did the planets initially form in their current location or have they shifted dramatically throughout history? Did some even explode? The mysteries behind these incredible cosmic forces and their history propel the imagination into the future. Could there be more and more big booms yet to come? Displacement of continental masses? Maybe planets transiting through the solar system? Only time will tell.

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The planet with the most moons in the solar system, Earth is far! https://sinia-planeta.com/the-planet-with-the-most-moons-in-the-solar-system-earth-is-far/ Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:15:32 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/the-planet-with-the-most-moons-in-the-solar-system-earth-is-far/ The planet with the most moons revolves around it. Of course, the greatest number of moons characterizes the planet. There is a famous planet in the solar system itself which has a large number of moons. The Moon is one of the natural satellites of the universe. There is also a moon orbiting the earth. […]]]>

The planet with the most moons revolves around it. Of course, the greatest number of moons characterizes the planet. There is a famous planet in the solar system itself which has a large number of moons.

The Moon is one of the natural satellites of the universe. There is also a moon orbiting the earth.

As a natural satellite, the Moon also has an advantage for the planets around which it orbits. The Moon on Earth has a great influence on the tides of ocean waters.

If the Earth has only one moon, it is different from the other moons of the solar system.

Read also: NASA has discovered a celestial planet covered in a layer of clear water

Which planet has the most moons in the solar system?

Each planet in the solar system has its own natural satellite. The Earth has a natural satellite, the Moon, which orbits around it.

However, other planets in the solar system have more than one moon. The solar system itself is a system that revolves around the Sun with the Earth.

NASA defines the Moon as a solid object with no atmosphere. Most of the Moon today is a ring or disk of gas and dust.

The ring, disk of gas and dust surrounded it at the start of the formation of the solar system.

Saturn has 82 moons

Starting from Phys, Saturn has the most moons. Not just one or two, Saturn also has a total of 82 moons.

Of these, 53 are confirmed months. While the other 29 have not been identified and still require additional observations.

With this number, Saturn deserves the nickname of planet with the most moons in the solar system.

Read also: Jupiter’s moon, Jovian system as a miniature solar system

the moon is too small

Although the numbers are huge, the moons around Saturn are very different from those around Jupiter.

All of the moons identified appear to be very small, with a diameter of only 5 kilometers.

While Jupiter’s satellites are few in number but very large. Ganymede, its largest moon, is about half the size of Earth.

Scientists believe that many of Saturn’s smaller satellites originated from larger satellites.

The satellite broke up due to collisions between moons in Saturn’s orbit or collisions with other celestial bodies, such as asteroids or comets.

Saturn has three moons AdvancedThis means that they orbit Saturn in a circular motion in the direction of Saturn’s rotation.

Read also: The oldest planet in the universe and the solar system, Earth is far away!

while another 17 orbit Saturn in the opposite direction or fallenThis satellite takes a very long time to orbit, which is equivalent to three years on Earth due to the size of Saturn, which is really large.

After Saturn, there is a planet with the most moons in the other solar system, named Jupiter. Jupiter has a total of 79 moons whose size is so large that they can orbit it all the time. (R10/HR-Online)

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The movement of the solar system through the galactic spiral arms of the Milky Way helped form Earth’s first continents https://sinia-planeta.com/the-movement-of-the-solar-system-through-the-galactic-spiral-arms-of-the-milky-way-helped-form-earths-first-continents/ Mon, 29 Aug 2022 00:53:01 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/the-movement-of-the-solar-system-through-the-galactic-spiral-arms-of-the-milky-way-helped-form-earths-first-continents/ Spiral galaxy from Kirkland et al. CREDIT Chris Kirkland and colleagues. GSA A new study of zircon crystals from two of Earth’s oldest continents indicates that the formation of the Earth’s continental crust goes through cycles, with periods of increased crust production approximately every 200 million years, corresponding to the transit of the solar system […]]]>

Spiral galaxy from Kirkland et al. CREDIT Chris Kirkland and colleagues.

GSA

A new study of zircon crystals from two of Earth’s oldest continents indicates that the formation of the Earth’s continental crust goes through cycles, with periods of increased crust production approximately every 200 million years, corresponding to the transit of the solar system through the four primary spiral arms of the Milky Way Galaxy. According to the study published yesterday in the journal Geology, regions of space with dense interstellar clouds could send more high-energy comets crashing into Earth’s surface, seeding increased production of continental crust.

“As geologists, we normally think that processes inside the earth are really important to the evolution of our planet. But we can also think on a much larger scale and look at extraterrestrial processes and our place in the environment. galactic,” says Chris Kirkland, lead author of the study.

Among its many unique features, Earth remains the only planet we know of that harbors continents and active plate tectonics. Plate tectonic processes have helped make our planet hospitable to life, shaping the composition and behavior of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.

The data used in this new study comes from two places where Earth’s oldest continental history is preserved: the North American Craton in Greenland and the Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. In both places, the decay of uranium in zircon crystals has been used to establish a chronology of formation, covering the period from about 2.8 to 3.8 billion years ago, during the Archean eon. Hafnium isotopes measured in zircon were used to identify periods of time when there were influxes of juvenile magmas associated with crustal production. Using mathematical analysis, the researchers discovered the longer-period pattern corresponding to the “galactic year.” They observed a similar trend when examining oxygen isotopes, strengthening their findings.

The researchers point to galactic traffic as the likely source of this pattern. Our solar system and the spiral arms of the Milky Way both revolve around the center of the galaxy, but they move at different speeds. While the spiral arms orbit at 210 km/second, the sun moves at 240 km/second, which means it surfs in and out of the spiral arms over time. At the edge of our solar system, astronomers believe that there is a cloud of icy planetesimals – called the Oort cloud – orbiting our sun at a distance of between 0.03 and 3.2 light years (at for comparison, the Earth is 8.3 light-minutes from the Sun). As the solar system moves in a spiral arm, the interaction between the Oort Cloud and the denser material in the spiral arms could send more icy material from the Oort Cloud hurtling towards Earth. As Earth experiences more regular impacts from rocky bodies in the asteroid belt, comets ejected from the Oort cloud arrive with much more energy. Kirkland explains, “It’s important because more energy will mean more melting. When it strikes it causes greater amounts of decompression melting, creating greater uplift of material, creating a larger crustal seat.

Spherule beds – rock formations produced by meteorite impacts – are another key piece of evidence linking periods of increased crust generation to comet impacts. Spherule beds are deposits of small spheres formed either as ejected impact melt or condensed and fallout from post-impact rock vapor plumes. The study authors observed that the ages of the spherule beds correlate well with the movement of the solar system in spiral arms around 3.25 and 3.45 billion years ago. Determining the ages for more spherule bed deposits could add more evidence to the story.

Phil Sutton, astrophysicist and co-author of the study, says these findings should motivate further investigation into how forces outside the solar system have shaped our planet. “It is very difficult to prove these things; we want to make that connection and start the conversation to look at the geological processes beyond Earth, beyond the solar system, and what might be driving them. We didn’t just train in isolation.

FEATURED ARTICLE
Did it transit through the seed crust production of galactic spiral arms on early Earth?
CL Kirkland; PJ Sutton; T. Erickson; TE Johnson; MIH Hartnady; H. Smithies; M. Prause

Astrobiology

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Dust found on asteroid Ryugu older than our solar system: study https://sinia-planeta.com/dust-found-on-asteroid-ryugu-older-than-our-solar-system-study/ Sun, 28 Aug 2022 03:23:16 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/dust-found-on-asteroid-ryugu-older-than-our-solar-system-study/ New Delhi: Scientists have now confirmed the presence of dust grains in asteroid Ryugu that are older than our own solar system. The priceless dust samples were collected by the Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa-2 which orbited the near-Earth asteroid Ryugu for two years, according to the study, adding that the spacecraft began its mission in 2014. […]]]>

New Delhi: Scientists have now confirmed the presence of dust grains in asteroid Ryugu that are older than our own solar system.

The priceless dust samples were collected by the Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa-2 which orbited the near-Earth asteroid Ryugu for two years, according to the study, adding that the spacecraft began its mission in 2014.

Located 300 million kilometers from Earth, Ryugu is probably made up of the debris of several other asteroids.

Since the dust sample collected by the probe returned to Earth, researchers around the world have tested it in different ways.

When studying one of the samples, an international team of researchers compared them to grains found in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites found on Earth. They noted that only 5% of these meteorites contained grains that predate the creation of the solar system. some of which have been dated to 7 billion years ago.

The researchers found that the dust sample contained grains identical to all others that have been seen in meteorites, showing that it also predates the solar system. They note that one in particular, a silicate known to be very easily destroyed, had to be somehow protected from sun damage. Read more

A giant marine reptile fossil discovered in Morocco

Researchers have discovered a huge new mosasaur a marine reptile from Morocco, named Thalassotitan atrox which grew up to 9 meters long.

Thalassotitan hunted other marine reptiles such as plesiosaurs, sea turtles, and other mosasaurs. Mosasaurs were distant relatives of modern iguanas and monitor lizards.

The mosasaurs looked like a Komodo dragon with fins instead of legs and a tail fin shaped like a shark. They became larger and more specialized during the last 25 million years of the Cretaceous.

Some have evolved to eat small prey like fish and squid. Others crushed ammonites and clams. The new mosasaur, Thalassotitan atrox, evolved to prey on all other marine reptiles.

Thalassotitan had an enormous skull measuring 1.4 meters and reaching nearly 9 meters in length, the size of a killer whale. While most mosasaurs had long jaws and slender teeth for catching fish, Thalassotitan had a short, broad snout and massive, conical teeth like those of an orca. These allow it to grab and tear apart huge prey. These adaptations suggest that Thalassotitan was an apex predator, sitting at the top of the marine food chain. Read also


Read also : Ancient rocks reveal how Earth’s magnetic field bounced back to save life on the planet


Australian bushfires affected the ozone layer in 2020

Unprecedented smoke released by Australia’s catastrophic bushfires has dramatically affected the hole in Earth’s ozone layer, a study has found.

According to the study published in the journal Scientific Reports, the fires which burned 5.8 million hectares of eastern Australia in late 2019 and early 2020 triggered the formation of pyrocumulonimbus clouds.

Pyrocumulonimbus clouds can cause fire tornadoes and thunderstorms. Those clouds threw more smoke into the atmosphere than the previous record, set by the 2017 North American wildfires.

According to researchers from the University of Exeter and the University of Manchester, this led to the injection of smoke and associated gases into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

The fires have also prolonged the Antarctic ozone hole, which appears over Antarctica every spring and reached record highs in observations in 2020.

However, researchers warn that because climate change will increase the frequency and intensity of bushfires, similar events in which pyrocumulonimbus clouds blow smoke high into the stratosphere will become more likely. Read more

Oldest evidence of human ancestors walking on two feet discovered

Fossils of the oldest human species indicate that our ancestors started walking on two feet much earlier than expected, according to a new study.

Bipedalism is considered a milestone in human evolution. However, there is no consensus when it first evolved, due to the lack of fossil remains.

A research team, associating researchers from the CNRS and the University of Poitiers, looked at three bones of limbs of the oldest human representative currently identified, Sahelanthropus tchadensis.

At 7 million years old, Sahelanthropus tchadensis is considered to be the oldest representative species of humanity.

The structure of a femur bone analyzed by the team indicates that Sahelanthropus was generally bipedal on the ground, but probably also in trees. Read more

Functionally extinct dugongs in China

Scientists from the Zoological Society of London and the Chinese Academy of Sciences have said one of the ocean’s gentlest giants, the dugong, is functionally extinct in China.

A “functionally extinct” organism is an organism that may still have a few living individuals but whose population will never recover.

Records of dugongs in Chinese waters declined rapidly from the 1970s due to human activities including fishing, ship strikes, and human-caused habitat loss.

With no records or evidence of their presence in China since 2008, the study shows strong indications that this is the first functional extinction of a large mammal in Chinese coastal waters.

The dugong is the only strictly herbivorous marine mammal. Since 1988, China’s State Council has classified it as a Level 1 National Key Protected Animal, placing it under the highest protection offered in the country.

Dugongs can be found in the coastal waters of tropical and subtropical countries, from East Africa to Vanuatu, and as far north as the islands of southwestern Japan, but they are globally threatened and classified as ” vulnerable” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. (IUCN). Read more

(Editing by Tony Rai)


Read also : Reptile diversity in the wake of global warming 250 years ago, study finds


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James Webb Space Telescope detects carbon dioxide on planet outside solar system https://sinia-planeta.com/james-webb-space-telescope-detects-carbon-dioxide-on-planet-outside-solar-system/ Thu, 25 Aug 2022 07:00:00 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/james-webb-space-telescope-detects-carbon-dioxide-on-planet-outside-solar-system/ A University of Central Florida researcher is part of an international team that used NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to capture definitive evidence of carbon dioxide in a planet’s atmosphere gas giant orbiting a sun-like star 700 light-years away. The finding was published online today and will appear in the journal Nature. The discovery […]]]>

A University of Central Florida researcher is part of an international team that used NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to capture definitive evidence of carbon dioxide in a planet’s atmosphere gas giant orbiting a sun-like star 700 light-years away.

The finding was published online today and will appear in the journal Nature.

The discovery provides insight into the composition and formation of the planet and demonstrates JWST’s ability to detect and measure carbon dioxide in the thinner atmospheres of small rocky planets.

This is the first detailed and indisputable evidence of carbon dioxide ever detected on a planet outside the solar system. The planet is called WASP-39 b and is in the constellation Virgo. The team used JWST’s near-infrared spectrograph, or NIRSpec, and also detected another molecule that has yet to be identified.

“It’s a very, very clear detection,” says study co-author Joseph Harrington, a UCF Pegasus professor of physics. “It’s a level of detection that knocks you over the head.”

“All previous observatories, Hubble, Spitzer, ground-based, etc., had trouble detecting carbon dioxide,” Harrington says. “Before, we had a very loud signal and you really couldn’t see anything. We now have very clear detection. It really is a demonstration of what the telescope can do.

No observatory has ever measured such subtle differences in the brightness of so many individual colors in the 3-5.5 micron range in an exoplanet transmission spectrum before. Access to this part of the spectrum is crucial for measuring the abundance of gases like water and methane, as well as carbon dioxide, which are thought to exist in many types of exoplanets.

Understanding the composition of a planet’s atmosphere is important because it tells researchers about the origin of the planet and how it evolved.

“Detecting the composition of the atmosphere says a lot about the chemistry of this planet,” says Harrington. “When you learn about the balance of chemicals in the atmosphere, it has implications for life. The amounts of carbon versus oxygen are quite important elements, since we are made of carbon and oxygen. The goal of all exoplanet science is really to characterize Earth-like planets and potentially find life.

Harrington’s role in the study included developing the proposal and editing the manuscript. He and his students developed open source analysis tools that will be used later in the project. The team of co-authors included more than 130 researchers from 15 countries.

One of the co-authors, Kevin Stevenson, an astronomer at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in Maryland, is the project’s co-principal investigator and has been involved with it since its inception.

Stevenson earned his Ph.D. in Physics and Planetary Sciences from UCF in 2012 and was advised by Harrington.

He said his work at UCF using the Spitzer Space Telescope to study the atmospheres of several hot Jupiter exoplanets at mid-infrared wavelengths, the same wavelengths covered by the JWST, allowed him to better assess the quality and accuracy of its data.

“JWST is already revolutionizing the science of transiting exoplanets,” says Stevenson.

He says the team is preparing four more articles which they hope to publish soon.

“We will seek to identify the mysterious molecule close to 4 microns, looking for sodium and potassium at short wavelengths and limiting the presence of other molecules, such as water vapour, methane and monoxide. carbon,” he says. “Each of these four papers will present data from the same planet, WASP-39b, but using different instrument modes. This allows us to study the atmosphere of the same planet over a range of wavelengths and spectral resolutions.

The NIRSpec prism sighting of WASP-39b is just part of a larger survey that is observing this planet and two others using multiple instruments. The survey, part of the Early Release Science program, was designed to provide the exoplanet research community with robust JWST data as soon as possible.

“The goal is to quickly analyze observations from Early Release Science and develop open source tools that the scientific community can use,” explains Vivien Parmentier from the University of Oxford. “This allows for contributions from around the world and ensures that the best possible science will come out of the next few decades of observations.”

The JWST is the world’s first space science observatory. It will solve the mysteries of our solar system, look beyond distant worlds around other stars, and probe the mysterious structures and origins of our universe and people’s place in it. JWST is an international program led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.

Harrington received his doctorate in planetary sciences from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He joined the physics department at UCF, which is part of the college of science, in 2006. He began observing and modeling giant planets as an undergraduate student at MIT. His pre-impact model of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9’s collision with Jupiter in 1994, as part of his PhD at MIT. thesis in planetary sciences, was published on the cover of Nature and triggered the global media frenzy around this event. Harrington then held a National Research Council fellowship at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, during which he modeled the aftermath of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact and also identified the majority of known planetary waves on planets other than Earth. From 1997 to 2006 he worked as a research scientist at Cornell University, where his interests shifted to the observation of extrasolar planets. He was part of the team that first measured light from an extrasolar planet, a result published in Nature in April 2005. He continues his work on exoplanets at UCF. In 2020, he was named a UCF Pegasus Professor. He served as chair of the UCF Faculty Senate and the UCF Board of Trustees in 2020-2022.

Title of the study: Identification of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of an exoplanet

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