Life on Earth and on the entire planet will meet its ultimate end

For more than 4 billion years, life on Earth has survived and thrived.

This aerial view of Grand Prismatic Spring in Yellowstone National Park is one of the most iconic land-based hydrothermal features in the world. The colors are due to the various organisms living in these extreme conditions and depend on the amount of sunlight reaching the different parts of the sources. Hydrothermal fields like this are among the best candidate locations for life to have originated on Earth. (Credit: Jim Peaco/National Park Service)

But over time, future disasters will afflict planet Earth.

This section shows the different regions of the surface and interior of the Sun, including the core, where nuclear fusion occurs. Over time, the region of the nucleus where nuclear fusion occurs enlarges, leading to increased solar energy production. (Credit: Wikimedia Commons/KelvinSong)

As the sun ages, its core expands and heats up, increasing the rate of nuclear fusion.

If all else fails, we can be sure that the evolution of the sun will kill all life on Earth. Long before we reach the red giant stage, stellar evolution will cause the sun’s brightness to increase enough to boil Earth’s oceans, which will surely wipe out humanity, if not all life on earth. Earth. The exact rate of the Sun’s increase in size, as well as the details of its stepwise mass loss, are not yet fully known. (Credit: Wikimedia Commons/OliverBeatson)

After another 1 or 2 billion years, its energy production will boil the Earth’s oceans.

On Earth today, ocean water typically only boils when lava or other superheated material enters it. But in the distant future, the sun’s energy will be enough to do this, and on a global scale. (Credit: Jennifer Williams via Flickr)

Subsequently, gravitational interactions between the inner planets disrupt their orbits.

The planets move in the orbits they make, stably, due to the conservation of angular momentum. With no way to gain or lose angular momentum, they arbitrarily remain in their elliptical orbits far into the future. However, if they exert mutual forces on each other and the sun occupies a finite volume, the exerted gravitational and tidal forces could lead to such chaotic evolutionary scenarios that one or more of these planets could eventually be ejected. (Credit: NASA/JPL/J. Giorgini)

There is a small probability that every rocky planet, including Earth, will be ejected.

When a planetary body is sufficiently gravitationally disturbed, its orbit can become unstable, resulting in a catastrophe such as an ejection or being hurled toward the sun, as shown here for HD 189733b, a planet devoured by its parent star. (Credit: NASA/GSFC)

After 4 billion years, the inevitable Andromeda-Milky Way merger occurs.

A series of still images showing the Milky Way-Andromeda merger and how the sky will appear different from Earth as it goes. This merger will occur about 4 billion years in the future, with a huge burst of star formation leading to a gasless, dead red elliptical galaxy: Milkdromeda. One large elliptical trainer is the eventual fate of the entire local group. Despite the enormous scales and number of stars involved, only about 1 in 100 billion stars will collide or merge during this event. (Credit: NASA; Z. Levay and R. van der Marel, STScI; T. Hallas; A. Mellinger)

Despite the formation of new stars, supernovae and stellar collisions, Earth probably remains unchanged.

In about five to seven billion years, the Sun will run out of hydrogen from its core. The interior will contract, heat up, and eventually helium fusion will begin. At this point, the sun will swell, vaporizing the earth’s atmosphere and charring whatever remains of our surface. But even when this catastrophic event occurs, Earth may not be swallowed up, remaining a planet, albeit very different from the world we know today. (Credit: ESO/L. Calçada)

A few billion years later, the sun becomes a red giant.

As the sun becomes a veritable red giant, the Earth itself may be swallowed up or gobbled up, but will certainly be roasted like never before. Venus and Merucry won’t be so lucky, as the sun’s red giant beam will easily encompass the two innermost worlds of our solar system, but Earth is estimated to be safe for about 10-20 million miles. . (Credit: Wikimedia Commons/Fsgregs)

Destined to engulf Mercury and Venus, the fate of the Earth remains uncertain.

When the sun has completely exhausted its nuclear fuel, it will blow its outer layers into a planetary nebula, while the center will contract into a hot, compact white dwarf star. It is uncertain whether this process will push Earth far enough away to avoid being pulled into the central stellar remnant, or whether our planet will meet our demise during this process. (Credit: V. Peris, JL Lamadrid, J. Harvey, S. Mazlin, A. Guijarro)

The loss of stellar mass pushes Earth’s orbit outward; we can still survive.

Once the sun has exited its red giant phase, its blown outer layers have dissipated, and only a white dwarf remains, many planets, potentially including Earth, will remain. If this event does not destroy our planet, we will probably survive another 10^26 years or so. (Credit: David A. Aguilar/CfA)

If so, we’ll orbit our remaining white dwarf for eons.

When a large number of gravitational interactions between star systems occur, a star can receive a kick large enough to be ejected from the structure of which it is a part. We observe runaway stars in the Milky Way even today; once they’re gone, they’ll never come back. This is estimated to happen for our sun sometime between 10^17 and 10^19 years from now, with the latter option being more likely. However, most scenarios imply that the Earth-Moon system remains bound to the sun when this occurs. (Credit: J. Walsh and Z. Levay, ESA/NASA)

After ~1019 years, massive interactions eject most stars and solar systems.

Particular patterns over time, or singular gravitational interactions with passing large masses, can cause large bodies to be disrupted and ejected from solar and planetary systems. In the early stages of a solar system many masses are ejected solely from the gravitational interactions between protoplanets, but in the later stages it is only random encounters that cause planetary ejections, and these are more rare than those that will eject entire solar systems. . (Credit: S. Basu, EI Vorobyov and AL DeSouza; arXiv: 1208.3713)

Earth, however, remains in orbit around our stellar remnant, with gravitational radiation causing inspiration.

The effects of our planet moving and accelerating through the central mass-induced curved spacetime anchoring our solar system will eventually cause Earth’s orbit to decay. This loss of energy due to gravitational radiation is slow but steady and will lead to our planet’s actual demise after about 10^26 years. (Credit: American Physical Society)

After ~1026 years, the tides will fatally tear the planet apart.

When a single massive body comes too close to a larger mass, the tidal forces become strong enough to overcome the gravitational binding energy, tearing the object apart and stretching it into a ring, before it does not rain and settle on the surface of the more massive body. The rest of the sun could do this to Earth in about 10^26 years. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

The corpse of the black dwarf of the sun will finally devour the remaining ashes of the Earth: our ultimate end.

Once the sun becomes a black dwarf, if nothing ejects or collides with the remnants of the earth, the gravitational radiation will eventually spiral us into pieces, being torn apart and eventually swallowed up by the rest of the earth. our sun. (Credit: Jeff Bryant/Vistapro)

Only the rare isolated and ejected planets will remain intact longer.

Rogue planets can have a variety of exotic origins, like coming from jagged stars or other material, or planets ejected from solar systems, but the majority are expected to come from star-forming nebulae, like simple gravitational clusters who never reached the star. size objects. When a microlensing event occurs, we can use the light to reconstruct the mass of the intervening planet. (Credit: C. Pulliam, D. Aguilar/CfA)

Mostly Mute Monday tells an astronomical story in pictures, visuals and no more than 200 words. Talk less; smile more.

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