billion years – Sinia Planeta http://sinia-planeta.com/ Thu, 17 Mar 2022 05:43:03 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://sinia-planeta.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/icon-50-120x120.png billion years – Sinia Planeta http://sinia-planeta.com/ 32 32 Meteor-hunting drones could uncover mysteries of the solar system https://sinia-planeta.com/meteor-hunting-drones-could-uncover-mysteries-of-the-solar-system/ Wed, 16 Mar 2022 13:50:01 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/meteor-hunting-drones-could-uncover-mysteries-of-the-solar-system/ Researchers have used drones and artificial intelligence (AI) to locate a freshly fallen meteorite in the vast Nullarbor Plain in Western Australia. The new method of locating meteorites developed by a team at Curtin University could dramatically increase the number of space rocks that can be tracked and collected, especially if they are observed as […]]]>

Researchers have used drones and artificial intelligence (AI) to locate a freshly fallen meteorite in the vast Nullarbor Plain in Western Australia.

The new method of locating meteorites developed by a team at Curtin University could dramatically increase the number of space rocks that can be tracked and collected, especially if they are observed as they plunge through the atmosphere.

Since many of these rocks come from asteroids, untouched material left over from the formation of the solar system more than 4.6 billion years ago, studying them could reveal the building blocks of planets like ours.

Studying meteorites can also reveal the age and composition of different planetary building blocks, the temperatures reached on the surface and inside asteroids, and the degree to which materials have been weathered by impacts in the past. , according to NASA.

Graduate student Seamus Anderson of the Curtin Center for Space Science and Technology (CSST) was the principal investigator of the project, which is the first to use a drone to collect images of a landscape, then the AI ​​to digitize these images.

He said in a university press release: “A drone equipped with a camera flies over and collects images of the drop zone, which are transferred to our field computer where an algorithm scans each image for meteorites and characteristics that resemble them.

“Although our algorithm was ‘trained’ on data collected from previous searches for meteorites, we brought previously recovered meteorites with us and imaged them on the ground at the fall site, to create local data with which to further train the algorithm.”

The team’s research is published in the ArXiv online paper repository.

Anderson said meteor searches typically involve a group of people covering large areas of predicted impact on foot. This new method requires only about one-tenth the amount of labor and time.

While most space rocks that enter Earth’s atmosphere shatter while traveling at tens of thousands of miles per hour, NASA estimates that about 5% of these objects reach the ground, with sizes ranging from a pebble in a fist.

Each year, it is estimated that approximately 500 meteorites survive this journey through the Earth’s atmosphere and strike the Earth’s surface. Less than 2% of them are recovered.

Often appearing like a typical Earth rock, but with a burnt or shiny exterior, meteorites can often be difficult to distinguish. And while it’s easier on the sandy bottoms of deserts, the vastness of these regions and the inhospitable environments still make such searches grueling.

Anderson said the new method also has a much higher likely success rate. The team located and recovered the meteorite within four days of being on site at Kybo Station, a farm in Western Australia.

The SSTC researcher said that in addition to increasing our understanding of the solar system, studying meteorites is useful for other reasons: “Meteorites often contain a higher concentration of rare and valuable elements such as cobalt, which is crucial for the construction of modern batteries.

“Furthermore, by gaining a better understanding of how extraterrestrial materials are distributed throughout the solar system, we could one day mine asteroids for valuable resources, instead of searching for finite amounts on Earth and perhaps be harming valuable ecosystems in treating it.”

And beyond the search for meteorites, the system imagined and tested by the team could have many other uses. “Other potential applications for our new approach using drones and artificial intelligence include wildlife management and conservation, as our model could be easily retrained to detect objects other than meteorites, such as plants and animals,” he said.

A file image shows a meteorite passing through the Earth’s atmosphere at thousands of kilometers per hour. Australian researchers have used a powerful combination of AI and drones to search for space rocks, a method that could increase our knowledge of the building blocks of the solar system.
Bjorn Bakstad/GETTY
]]>
Meteorites That Helped Form Earth May Have Formed In The Outer Solar System, Study Suggests https://sinia-planeta.com/meteorites-that-helped-form-earth-may-have-formed-in-the-outer-solar-system-study-suggests/ Sun, 13 Mar 2022 10:55:43 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/meteorites-that-helped-form-earth-may-have-formed-in-the-outer-solar-system-study-suggests/ Tokyo: A new study by researchers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology’s Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI) has suggested that these asteroid materials could have formed very far away in the early solar system and then been transported around the system. internal solar by chaotic mixing processes. The study was published in the journal “AGU Advances.’ […]]]>

Tokyo: A new study by researchers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology’s Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI) has suggested that these asteroid materials could have formed very far away in the early solar system and then been transported around the system. internal solar by chaotic mixing processes.

The study was published in the journal “AGU Advances.’

Our solar system is thought to have formed from a cloud of gas and dust, called the solar nebula, which began gravitationally condensing around 4.6 billion years ago. As this cloud contracted, it began to spin and form into a spinning disk around the highest gravity mass at its center, which would become our Sun.

Our solar system inherited all of its chemical composition from an earlier star or stars that exploded as supernovae. Our Sun picked up a general sample of this material as it formed, but the residual material in the disk began to migrate due to its propensity to freeze at a given temperature. As the Sun became dense enough to initiate nuclear fusion reactions and become a star, it picked up a general sample of this material during its formation, but the remnants in the disk formed solid material to form planetary bodies based on its propensity to freeze at any given time. Temperature.

When the Sun irradiated the surrounding disk, it created a heat gradient in the early solar system. For this reason, the inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are mostly made of rock (mainly composed of heavier elements, such as iron, magnesium, and silicon), while the outer planets are made of rock. largely composed of lighter elements, in particular hydrogen, helium. , carbon, nitrogen and oxygen.

Earth is thought to have formed partly from carbonaceous meteorites, which are thought to have originated from asteroids in the outer main belt. Telescopic observations of outer main belt asteroids reveal a common feature of 3.1mm reflectance that suggests their outer layers host either water ice or ammonia clays, or both, which are only stable at very low temperatures.

Interestingly, although several lines of evidence suggest that carbonaceous meteorites are derived from such asteroids, meteorites recovered from Earth generally lack this feature. The asteroid belt therefore raises many questions for astronomers and planetary scientists.

In this study, a combination of asteroid observations using the Japanese AKARI space telescope and theoretical modeling of chemical reactions in asteroids suggests that surface minerals present on outer main belt asteroids, in particular clays containing ammonia (NH3), form from raw materials containing Ice NH3 and CO2 which are only stable at very low temperatures and under water-rich conditions.

Based on these results, this new study proposed that outer main-belt asteroids form in distant orbits and differentiate to form different minerals in water-rich mantles and rock-dominated cores.

To understand the source of the discrepancies in the measured spectra of carbonaceous meteorites and asteroids, using computer simulations, the team modeled the chemical evolution of several plausible primitive mixtures designed to simulate primitive asteroid materials. They then used these computer models to produce simulated reflectance spectra to compare with those obtained by telescope.

Their models indicated that to match the asteroid spectra, the starting material had to contain a significant amount of water and ammonia, a relatively low abundance of CO2, and react at temperatures below 70, suggesting that the asteroids would are formed much further than their current presence. locations in the early solar system. In contrast, the absence of the 3.1 mm feature in meteorites can be attributed to a possibly deeper reaction inside the asteroids where temperatures reached higher values. Thus, recovered meteorites can sample deeper parts of asteroids.

If true, this study suggests that the formation of the Earth and its unique properties resulted from particular aspects of the formation of the solar system. There will be several opportunities to test this model, for example, this study provides predictions on what analysis of samples returned by Hayabusa 2 will find. This distant origin of asteroids, if correct, predicts that there will be ammonia salts and minerals in samples returned by Hayabusa 2. Further verification of this model will be provided by analyzes of materials returned by the mission. NASA’s OSIRIS-Rex.

This study also investigated whether the physical and chemical conditions of outer main belt asteroids should be able to form the observed minerals. The proposed cold and distant origin of asteroids suggests that there should be a significant similarity between asteroids and comets and raises questions about how each of these body types formed.

This study suggested that the materials that formed the Earth may have formed very far away in the early solar system, then were introduced during the solar system’s particularly turbulent early days. Recent observations of protoplanetary disks by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have found numerous ring structures, which are thought to be direct observations of planetesimal formation.

As lead author Hiroyuki Kurokawa summed up the work, “Whether the formation of our solar system is a typical outcome remains to be determined, but many measurements suggest that we may soon be able to put our cosmic history into context.”

Read all Recent news, New trends, Cricket News, bollywood news,
India News and Entertainment News here. follow us on Facebook, Twitter and instagram.

]]>
Meteorites That Helped Form Earth May Have Formed In The Outer Solar System https://sinia-planeta.com/meteorites-that-helped-form-earth-may-have-formed-in-the-outer-solar-system/ Sat, 12 Mar 2022 05:02:00 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/meteorites-that-helped-form-earth-may-have-formed-in-the-outer-solar-system/ Our solar system is believed to have formed from a cloud of gas and dust, the so-called solar nebula, which began gravitationally condensing around 4.6 billion years ago. As this cloud contracted, it began to spin and form into a spinning disk around the highest gravity mass at its center, which would become our Sun. […]]]>

Our solar system is believed to have formed from a cloud of gas and dust, the so-called solar nebula, which began gravitationally condensing around 4.6 billion years ago. As this cloud contracted, it began to spin and form into a spinning disk around the highest gravity mass at its center, which would become our Sun. Our solar system inherited all of its chemical composition from an earlier star or stars that exploded as supernovae. Our Sun picked up a general sample of this material as it formed, but the residual material in the disk began to migrate due to its propensity to freeze at a given temperature. As the Sun became dense enough to initiate nuclear fusion reactions and become a star, it picked up a general sample of this material during its formation, but the remnants in the disk formed solid material to form planetary bodies based on its propensity to freeze at any given time. Temperature. When the Sun irradiated the surrounding disk, it created a heat gradient in the early solar system. For this reason, the inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are mostly made of rock (mainly composed of heavier elements, such as iron, magnesium, and silicon), while the outer planets are made of rock. largely composed of lighter elements, in particular hydrogen, helium. , carbon, nitrogen and oxygen.

Earth is thought to have formed partly from carbonaceous meteorites, which are thought to have originated from asteroids in the outer main belt. Telescopic observations of outer main-belt asteroids reveal a common reflectance feature of 3.1 μm that suggests that their outer layers host either water ices or ammonia clays, or both, which are stable only at very low temperatures. Interestingly, although several lines of evidence suggest that carbonaceous meteorites are derived from such asteroids, meteorites recovered from Earth generally lack this feature. The asteroid belt thus raises many questions for astronomers and planetary scientists.

A new study by researchers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology’s Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI) suggests that these asteroid materials may have formed very far away in the early solar system and then been transported into the inner solar system by chaotic mixing processes. In this study, a combination of asteroid observations using the Japanese AKARI space telescope and theoretical modeling of chemical reactions in asteroids suggests that surface minerals present on outer main belt asteroids, in especially ammonia (NH3)-bearing clays, formed from raw materials containing NH3 and co2 ice that are only stable at very low temperatures and in water-rich conditions. Based on these findings, this new study proposes that outer main belt asteroids formed in distant orbits and differentiated to form different minerals in water-rich mantle and rock-dominated cores.

To understand the source of the discrepancies in the measured spectra of carbonaceous meteorites and asteroids, using computer simulations, the team modeled the chemical evolution of several plausible primitive mixtures designed to simulate primitive asteroid materials. They then used these computer models to produce simulated reflectance spectra to compare with those obtained by telescope.

Their models indicated that to match the asteroid spectra, the starting material had to contain a significant amount of water and ammonia, a relatively low abundance of CO2, and react to temperatures below 70℃, suggesting that the asteroids formed far beyond their current locations in the early solar system. In contrast, the absence of the 3.1 mm feature in meteorites can be attributed to a possibly deeper reaction inside the asteroids where temperatures reached higher values. Thus, recovered meteorites can sample deeper parts of asteroids.

If true, this study suggests that the formation of the Earth and its unique properties resulted from particular aspects of the formation of the solar system. There will be several opportunities to test this model, for example, this study provides predictions on what analysis of samples returned by Hayabusa 2 will find. This distant origin of asteroids, if correct, predicts that there will be ammonia salts and minerals in samples returned by Hayabusa 2. Further verification of this model will be provided by analyzes of materials returned by the mission. NASA’s OSIRIS-Rex.

This study also investigated whether the physical and chemical conditions of outer main belt asteroids should be able to form the observed minerals. The proposed cold and distant origin of asteroids suggests that there should be a significant similarity between asteroids and comets and raises questions about how each of these body types formed.

This study suggests that the materials that formed the Earth may have formed very far away in the early solar system, then were introduced during the solar system’s particularly turbulent early days. Recent observations of protoplanetary disks by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have found numerous ring structures, which are thought to be direct observations of planetesimal formation. As lead author Hiroyuki Kurokawa summarizes the work, “Whether the formation of our solar system is a typical outcome remains to be determined, but many measurements suggest that we may soon be able to put our cosmic history into context.”

Reference

H. Kurokawa1*, T. Shibuya2Y.Sekine1BL Ehlmann3.4F.Usui5.6S.Kikuchi2and Mr. Yoda1.7Distant Formation and Differentiation of Outer Main Belt Asteroids and Carbonaceous Chondrite Parent Bodies, AGU Advances, DOI: 10.1029/2021AV000568

  1. Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan
  2. Super-cutting-edge Grand and Advanced Research Program (SUGAR), Institute for Extra-cutting-edge Science and Technology Avant-garde Research (X-star), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokosuka, Japan
  3. Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
  4. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA
  5. Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Japan
  6. Center for Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan
  7. Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

More information

Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) is at the forefront of research and higher education as the leading science and technology university in Japan. Tokyo Tech researchers excel in fields ranging from materials science to biology, computer science and physics. Founded in 1881, Tokyo Tech enrolls more than 10,000 undergraduate and graduate students each year, who become scientific leaders and some of the most sought-after engineers in the industry. Embodying the Japanese philosophy of “monotsukuri”, meaning “technical ingenuity and innovation”, the Tokyo Tech community strives to contribute to society through high-impact research.

The Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI) is one of Japan’s ambitious international research centers, whose goal is to achieve progress in broadly interdisciplinary fields of science by inviting the world’s greatest minds to come to Japan. and to collaborate on the most ambitious scientific projects. problems. ELSI’s main goal is to address the origin and co-evolution of Earth and life.

The World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI) was launched in 2007 by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) to help build globally visible research centers in Japan. These institutes promote high research standards and exceptional research environments that attract frontline researchers from around the world. These centers are highly autonomous, allowing them to revolutionize conventional ways of operating and administering research in Japan.

/Public release. This material from the original organization/authors may be ad hoc in nature, edited for clarity, style and length. The views and opinions expressed are those of the author or authors.View Full here.

]]>
The sky this week from March 11 to 18 https://sinia-planeta.com/the-sky-this-week-from-march-11-to-18/ Fri, 11 Mar 2022 14:47:16 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/the-sky-this-week-from-march-11-to-18/ Wednesday March 16Whether you rise early or late today, there is a tempting target in the north: the variable star Delta (δ) Cephei in Cepheus the King. This bright star lies about 2.5° east of Zeta Cephei, which marks the lower right (southeast) corner of the house-shaped constellation. Delta Cep is the archetype of the […]]]>

Wednesday March 16
Whether you rise early or late today, there is a tempting target in the north: the variable star Delta (δ) Cephei in Cepheus the King. This bright star lies about 2.5° east of Zeta Cephei, which marks the lower right (southeast) corner of the house-shaped constellation.

Delta Cep is the archetype of the Cepheid variable star – a supergiant star that is no longer fueled by hydrogen, which has already been depleted from its core. Now pulsating in size, Delta Cep steadily changes in brightness over a period of 5 days, 8 hours, 47 minutes and 32 seconds, going from magnitude 3.48 at its peak to 4.37 at its peak. Take the time to examine the star tonight to compare it to nearby suns. Check back every few days and you may be able to tell if it is currently brightening or darkening. Astrophotographers experienced in using photometry software can easily plot the star’s luminosity over time, by plotting it as a light curve.

Sunrise: 7:10 a.m.
Sunset: 7:08 p.m.
Moonrise: 5:32 p.m.
Moon setting: 06:44
Moon phase: Waxing Gibber (97%)

Thursday March 17
When you think of the Cancer star clusters, M44 – also known as the Beehive Cluster – probably comes to mind. But that’s not all the crab has to offer. Tonight, let’s enjoy a different open cluster: M67, which spans 30′ near magnitude 4 Acubens, the constellation’s alpha star.

From Acubens, look 1.7° due west and you’ll land right in the middle of M67, which shines at 6th magnitude. This is fair bright enough to be seen with the naked eye, but only on a moonless night with an otherwise dark sky. Given the brightness of the full moon today, you will need binoculars or a telescope to help you in your search. This beautiful, dense group of stars is around 4 billion years old – quite old for an open cluster, and astronomers expect it to last another 5 billion years before fully dispersing.

Sunrise: 7:08
Sunset: 7:09 p.m.
Moonrise: 6:38 p.m.
Moon setting: 7:11
Moon phase: Waxing Gibber (99%)

Friday 18th March
The full moon occurs at 3:18 a.m. EDT, casting its bright light across the predawn sky. It will do the same tonight, rising towards sunset. The March Full Moon is also called the Worm Moon.

This month, the Full Moon is in Virgo. To reduce the effect of our satellite on deep sky observation, let’s look elsewhere tonight: Turn north after sunset to find the constellation Camelopardalis. Here we are looking for the relatively bright galaxy NGC 2403 (magnitude 8.5). This distant spiral is nearly 10 million light-years away and extends approximately 25.5 feet by 13 feet into the sky. Although visible in 10×50 binoculars under dark skies, you better use a telescope tonight to compensate for interference from the Moon.

NGC 2403 is located in the southeastern part of the constellation, near the tip of the nose of nearby Ursa Major, marked by the 3rd magnitude star Muscida. From this star, look 7.7° northwest to land on NGC 2403, which lies 0.7° south of a 7th magnitude field star, HIP 37196.

Sunrise: 7:07
Sunset: 7:10 p.m.
Moonrise: 7:47 p.m.
Moon setting: 7:36
Moon phase: Full

]]>
ESO’s new tech telescope, TESS, helps discover an Earth-like planet in the habitable zone of a dead star https://sinia-planeta.com/esos-new-tech-telescope-tess-helps-discover-an-earth-like-planet-in-the-habitable-zone-of-a-dead-star/ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 05:50:01 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/esos-new-tech-telescope-tess-helps-discover-an-earth-like-planet-in-the-habitable-zone-of-a-dead-star/ The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) have recently glimpsed the distant future of Earth. NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) recently discovered potential signs of a rocky exoplanet orbiting a white dwarf star called WD 1054-226, per Space.com. The white dwarf star and the exoplanet that orbits it […]]]>

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) have recently glimpsed the distant future of Earth.

NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) recently discovered potential signs of a rocky exoplanet orbiting a white dwarf star called WD 1054-226, per Space.com.

The white dwarf star and the exoplanet that orbits it are located 117 light-years from Earth in the constellation Crater, according to the News 9 Live report.

What did TESS see?

NASA’s TESS saw planetary debris and moon-sized objects in the habitable zone of WD 1054-226, possible clues that a rocky Earth-sized exoplanet could be 1.6 million miles away. miles from WD 1054-226, a distance that is within the habitable zone of the white dwarf star’s zone.

The habitable zone, also known as the “Goldilocks zone”, is generally defined as where liquid water can exist on the surface of a rocky planet.

Read also: Uber Eats announces bulk ordering features: bill splitting, automatic reminders, and more!

The researchers also noticed “sharp light dips,” or times when a star’s light gradually rises and falls over a significant duration. They did this using ESO’s new technology 3.5 meter telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile.

The light troughs from WD1054-226 correspond to 65 “equidistant” clouds of planetary debris that orbit the star every 25 hours, the scientists noted. As such, the regular distribution of space junk suggests that an Earth-sized terrestrial planet could hold everything in place.

Only one other planet has been discovered orbiting a white dwarf. However, this planet turned out to be a gas giant, a planet similar to Jupiter of our solar system, and far from the habitable zone of the white dwarf star.

A white dwarf star is the last stage of stars eight times more massive than the Sun in our solar system after they become a red giant. The transformation of a star into a white dwarf occurs when a star runs out of hydrogen to fuel itself. Scientists predict that the Sun will undergo this transformation in about five billion years.

What this means for science

The researchers were initially surprised by their findings. Astrophysicist Jay Farihi of University College London said the possibility of a major planet in the habitable zone is “exciting and also unexpected; we weren’t looking for that,” according to the Royal Astronomical Society website.

If the researchers were right, the discovery of the exoplanet would be a breakthrough for white dwarf science.

However, Prof Farihi cautioned about the procedures needed to confirm the presence of the exoplanet as it cannot be directly observed on Earth.

“We cannot observe the planet directly, so confirmation can come by comparing computer models with other observations of the star and orbiting debris,” Prof Farihi said.

Prof Farihi is the lead author of the study that found hints of a rocky exoplanet around WD 1054-226, which is published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Related article: NASA’s Perseverance rover successfully collects its 7th sample

]]>
An Earth-like planet could be orbiting in the ‘habitable zone’ of a dead star https://sinia-planeta.com/an-earth-like-planet-could-be-orbiting-in-the-habitable-zone-of-a-dead-star/ Wed, 09 Mar 2022 15:00:57 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/an-earth-like-planet-could-be-orbiting-in-the-habitable-zone-of-a-dead-star/ Planetary debris, including some moon-sized objects, may hint at a rocky exoplanet in a stellar zombie’s habitable zone, according to a new study. The star in question is a white dwarf called WD1054-226, a cooling remnant of a star that has used up all the fuel in its core. If an exoplanet is confirmed in […]]]>

Planetary debris, including some moon-sized objects, may hint at a rocky exoplanet in a stellar zombie’s habitable zone, according to a new study.

The star in question is a white dwarf called WD1054-226, a cooling remnant of a star that has used up all the fuel in its core. If an exoplanet is confirmed in the system, it would be a breakthrough for white dwarf science, the researchers noted in a statement. Only one other planet has been discovered to date orbiting a white dwarf. This planet, however, is a gas giant, a planet similar to Jupiter, and not near the habitable zone (generally defined as where liquid water can exist on the surface of a rocky planet).

]]>
Backyard astronomy: Earth dodged a solar bullet last month https://sinia-planeta.com/backyard-astronomy-earth-dodged-a-solar-bullet-last-month/ Mon, 07 Mar 2022 12:00:49 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/backyard-astronomy-earth-dodged-a-solar-bullet-last-month/ For most, February 15 seemed like an ordinary day. We recognized Flag Day, the day the Canadian maple leaf flag was first raised in Ottawa in 1965. But things played out differently on the surface of the sun, with a huge explosion in the space, known as coronal mass ejection (CME). The good news for […]]]>

For most, February 15 seemed like an ordinary day.

We recognized Flag Day, the day the Canadian maple leaf flag was first raised in Ottawa in 1965. But things played out differently on the surface of the sun, with a huge explosion in the space, known as coronal mass ejection (CME).

The good news for us: this intense X-class happened on the far side of the sun, with the particles moving away from us. This class of flare is the most powerful on the scale.

The sun is a huge ball of hot plasma, spanning the width of 109 Earths aligned side by side like a string of pearls at its equator.

The immense energy of the sun is produced in its heart. Every second, 600 million tons of hydrogen are converted into 595 million tons of helium. The remaining five million tons produce pure energy that helps sustain life here on Earth.

This has been going on for 4.6 billion years and will continue for another four to five billion.

During the sun’s 11-year solar cycle, the internal magnetic field lines begin to twist, accumulating energy. Eventually, this energy is released in solar flares, forming large loops anchored to the solar disk.

However, there are times when the energy from the eruption is so intense that a CME explodes on the surface, traveling through the solar system via the solar wind. In calm weather, the solar winds blow at about 350 kilometers per second, but a very intense explosion can reach 2,000 kilometers per second.

When a cloud meets Earth, it can trigger the spectacular Northern Lights, also known as the Northern Lights. On a typical day, about 20 flares are seen on the surface of the sun.

When our atmosphere interacts with a solar storm, it helps inflate our atmosphere and is extremely dangerous for satellites. They can malfunction or be dragged down and destroyed when they burn up in the atmosphere.

It happened with a geomagnetic storm that hit Earth in late January, bringing down 40 of the 49 Starlink satellites that SpaceX had just sent out. This new batch had not reached operating altitude and fell from the sky, costing around $20 million.

Another dangerous factor is that if the CME had been oriented towards the Earth, our planet could have had serious problems. Solar storms like these can destroy power grids, like the Quebec blackout of March 13, 1989, when transformers melted.

One of the most intense storms to hit Earth was called the Carrington Event of September 1859. Teleprinters were still able to transmit messages, even with the batteries disconnected.

There were even reports of paper and machinery catching fire. The aurora was so bright that prospectors looking for gold woke up in the middle of the night. They started to prepare breakfast, thinking that the sun was rising.

At some point in the future, we will possibly be hit by another such Carrington event. When this happens, power grids will be affected or fail, impacting our daily lives. We are so dependent on electricity and the internet for urban and rural infrastructure.

We dodged a solar bullet on February 15. The current solar cycle ramps up to the height of Solar Max for some time in July 2025. By then, there will be more chances of seeing the twinkling Northern Lights.

Until next time, clear skies.

Gary Boyle is an astronomy educator, speaker and monthly columnist for the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. He has also been interviewed on over 50 Canadian radio stations and was honored with the renaming of asteroid (22406) Garyboyle. Follow him on Twitter: @astroeducator or on its website, www.wondersofastronomy.com.

]]>
Search on “fossils of our solar system” https://sinia-planeta.com/search-on-fossils-of-our-solar-system/ Fri, 04 Mar 2022 15:30:00 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/search-on-fossils-of-our-solar-system/ Fireballs Aotearoa wants you to go catch a shooting star. Or at least capture one on a camera. Fireballs Aotearoa is a collaborative effort of skywatchers, astronomers and amateur geologists from the University of Canterbury and the University of Otago. Their goal is to create a network of cameras to photograph meteors as they burn […]]]>
Fireballs Aotearoa wants you to go catch a shooting star.

Or at least capture one on a camera.

Fireballs Aotearoa is a collaborative effort of skywatchers, astronomers and amateur geologists from the University of Canterbury and the University of Otago. Their goal is to create a network of cameras to photograph meteors as they burn through the sky.

Several camera recordings make it possible to follow the trajectory of a meteor. From this, the probable landing site of meteorites, those bits of meteors that land on the ground, can be calculated.

Associate Professor James Scott of Otago’s Department of Geology founded Fireballs Aotearoa last month.

He said around 70,000 meteorites had been collected worldwide, but only 40 had been photographed as they passed through the atmosphere.

Barely 10 meteorites had been discovered in New Zealand.

“There must be more.

“So far we haven’t had the luck or the cameras to find them,” Professor Scott said.

So far, Fireballs Aotearoa has four cameras: two in Nelson and one in Wellington and Invercargill.

It’s a shame for Dunedin – at around 4:30 p.m. on Tuesday, University of Otago electron beam data technician Dr Marianne Negrini saw “some kind of large object exploding in the sky”.

It was off Dunedin and quietly broke into two or three pieces, she said.

“You need really good timing to catch them,” Dr. Negrini said.

If a camera had been pointed over the ocean, it might have picked up the fireball as it blazed.

Networks of meteor cameras exist elsewhere in the world.

The UK Meteor Observation Network, part of the larger UK Fireball Alliance, helped recover pieces of the Winchcombe meteorite in south-central England last year.

They were 4.6 billion years old and came from the asteroid belt.

Prof Scott said if a meteorite was found quickly it would not decay and more information could be gleaned from it.

We could tell where it came from and what its orbit was.

He said meteorites were important because they were spyglasses in the past and helped us understand how planets formed.

“These are the fossils of our solar system,” he said.

Some meteorites came from Mars and could tell us more about the history of this planet, he said.

The Winchcombe meteorite was the same material as the sun’s core, Prof Scott said.

Now we can all help find those grace notes of the music of the spheres. The cameras are available on Fireballs Aotearoa’s website, fireballs.nz, for $350. Once installed and connected to your home Wi-Fi network, they search and register.

eric.trump@odt.co.nz

]]>
Bad astronomy | Mini-Neptunes lose their atmosphere and become super-Earths https://sinia-planeta.com/bad-astronomy-mini-neptunes-lose-their-atmosphere-and-become-super-earths/ Thu, 24 Feb 2022 14:00:19 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/bad-astronomy-mini-neptunes-lose-their-atmosphere-and-become-super-earths/ In our solar system, the Earth is the largest of the telluric planets; small rocky worlds. The next largest planet in size is Neptune, a gas giant four times the diameter of Earth. When we started finding exoplanets – alien planets orbiting other stars – we started finding planets in that mass gap. Over time, […]]]>

In our solar system, the Earth is the largest of the telluric planets; small rocky worlds. The next largest planet in size is Neptune, a gas giant four times the diameter of Earth.

When we started finding exoplanets – alien planets orbiting other stars – we started finding planets in that mass gap. Over time, enough have been found to get statistics, and these planets fall into two distinct mass ranges: “super-Earths” which are up to about 1.6 times the diameter of Earth, and the “mini-Neptunes”, which are 2 to 4 times our diameter. width of the planet.

But… that still leaves a mass gap! Where are the planets between 1.6 and 2 times the size of Earth?

One idea is that when a forming planet reaches about 1.6 times the size of Earth, its gravity is strong enough to really start sucking gas around it and it becomes a mini-Neptune (or larger). This may work for planets further away from a newborn star where it’s cold and abundant in gas, but what about those closer? An idea to explain those is that if a planet 1.6 to 2 times the size of Earth is too close to the star, it is so hot that it cannot retain the atmosphere it already has. It leaks gas into space, losing mass and size until it becomes a super-Earth.

The latter was only an idea until now, but two newly discovered exoplanets around different stars both appear to be mini-Neptunes actively losing their atmosphere and are on their way to becoming super-Earths. This has never been seen before.

In both cases, the planets transit their host stars, passing directly between us and the star, creating a mini-eclipse. We can’t see the planets directly, but when starlight passes through the planets’ atmospheres, different elements absorb specific wavelengths (colors) of light. For example, helium absorbs in the infrared and hydrogen in the ultraviolet. Looking closely at these colors, it is possible to see a dip in starlight brightness. Not only that, but as the gas moves away from the planet, we see a Doppler shift in the color of the light, and, measured very carefully, this can reveal how much gas is leaking onto the planet and how fast.

Exoplanet HD 63433c orbits a young Sun-like star about 73 light-years from Earth. Astronomers observed it using the space telescope imaging spectrograph on Hubble (link to the article). It’s 2.67 times the diameter of Earth, so it’s a mini-Neptune, and it only takes about 20 Earth days to orbit the star once. That puts it just 22 million miles from the star, so it’s to cook‘. So hot, in fact, that it should lose air to space despite being about 7 times the mass of Earth.

Sure enough, they see the hydrogen absorbing the light from the star, and from the Doppler shift, it is moving away from the planet at 50 kilometers per second – 180,000 km/h! The planet loses about 10% of Earth’s gas mass every billion years. At this rate, it will take some time to lose enough gas to become a super-Earth, but some planets have time. Interestingly, there is another planet in this same system, a somewhat smaller mini-Neptune closer to the star, and no loss of atmospheric hydrogen has been detected from it. It’s probably so much hotter than it is already lost as much gas as possible. In this case, some planets ran out of time.

The other exoplanet observed by astronomers is HD 73583b, which is 2.8 times the diameter of Earth orbiting a slightly cooler star 103 light-years away (link to article). The planet circles the star every 6.4 Earth days, so again it’s close, just 9 million miles from the star and very hot. Using the Keck telescope’s NIRSPEC spectrograph, they detected that helium was leaking from the planet, spreading out at about 20 km/sec. It loses gas at about twice the rate of the HD 63433c, so again over time it will likely become a super-Earth.

Oddly, in this case, the gas seemed to be more red-shifted, indicating that instead of being blown away from the star – slight pressure and the stellar wind would do this, just as they push the tail of a comet – the gas is heading towards the star. It is difficult to explain this behavior. Either it’s observational error, which seems unlikely given the care they’ve taken to process the data, or there’s some weird physical mechanism at play here. Further observations should help the team understand what the planet is doing.

Both planets are puffy, larger than expected, because their atmospheres are enlarged by absorbing so much energy from their stars, much like the air inside a hot air balloon expands when heated. We’ve seen puffy planets before, but they’re all the size of Jupiter with masses hundreds of times that of Earth. These two have a much lower mass, and this is the first time this has been seen on a planet of this size. Given the observations, it does indeed appear that puffy mini-Neptunes become super-Earths over time. It’s unclear how much atmosphere could possibly remain after the process is complete, but it would certainly be much thinner.

I will note that there are no super-Earths or mini-Neptunes in our solar system – otherwise we would give them a different name! But they are by far the most common type of planet we see around other stars. It’s unclear why we don’t have one – except for Planet 9, if it exists – but it’s weird. We use our own planetary system as a model to understand all others, but it’s entirely possible were the weird ones. It just depends on your point of view.

]]>
10 things in space that come in pairs – NASA Solar System Exploration https://sinia-planeta.com/10-things-in-space-that-come-in-pairs-nasa-solar-system-exploration/ Sat, 19 Feb 2022 02:57:55 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/10-things-in-space-that-come-in-pairs-nasa-solar-system-exploration/ The February calendar has many twos. There was 02-02-2022 and now 22-02-2022 – which some people call “Twosday”. To mark this Duos Day, we bring you our list of things in the solar system that come in twos or pairs. 1. Binary Asteroids – Sometimes asteroids come in pairs Asteroids don’t always fly solo. Some […]]]>

The February calendar has many twos. There was 02-02-2022 and now 22-02-2022 – which some people call “Twosday”. To mark this Duos Day, we bring you our list of things in the solar system that come in twos or pairs.

1. Binary Asteroids – Sometimes asteroids come in pairs

Asteroids don’t always fly solo. Some have a moon – or a small moon – orbiting the larger body. This is called a binary asteroid system. NASA has a spacecraft traveling to a near-Earth binary asteroid: the Double Asteroid Redirection Test, or DART, heads for Didymos, which means “twin” in Greek (and explains the word “twin” in the mission’s name). Didymos has a moon named Dimorphos. DART will impact Dimorphos almost head-on to demonstrate a method of deflecting asteroids.

The target of DART is NOT a threat to Earth. This asteroid system is a perfect testing ground to see if intentionally crashing a spacecraft into an asteroid is an effective way to change its trajectory, should an Earth-threatening asteroid be discovered in the future. No known asteroid larger than 460 feet (140 meters) has a significant chance of hitting Earth in the next 100 years.


2. Double craters

This image shows a remarkable double crater on Mars. Scientists believe the craters must have formed simultaneously. Maybe Mars got hit by a double asteroid. Or it may have been impacted by an asteroid or comet that split into two pieces before hitting the surface.


Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwestern Research Institute/Roman Tkachenko | Full image and caption

3. Kuiper Belt Objects – Strange and Distant Worlds

The small Kuiper Belt Arrokoth Object is the most distant and primitive object ever explored by spacecraft. It was discovered in 2014 by NASA’s New Horizons science team, using the The Hubble Space Telescope. the New Horizons Spaceship flew over Arrokoth on January 1, 2019, taking images that showed a double-lobed object that looked like a partially flattened snowman. It is also very red – even redder than Pluto. The strange shape of the object – unlike any other object visited so far – was the biggest surprise of the flyby.


4. The Earth and its Moon – Quite the pair

The brightest and largest object in our night sky, the Moon makes Earth a more livable planet by moderating the wobble of our home planet as it spins on its axis, leading to a relatively stable climate. . It also causes tides, creating a rhythm that has guided humans for thousands of years, and life in Earth’s oceans for much longer. The Moon likely formed after a Mars-sized body collided with Earth several billion years ago.


5. Pluto and Charon – Double Planet

Pluto has five known moons: Charon, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos, and Styx. The largest of these moons, Charon, is about half the size of Pluto. This makes it the largest satellite relative to the planet it orbits in our solar system. It orbits Pluto at a distance of just 12,200 miles (19,640 kilometers). For comparison, our Moon is a quarter the size of Earth and 20 times farther from Earth. Pluto and Charon are often referred to as a twin planet. This composite of enhanced color images of Pluto (bottom right) and Charon (top left) was taken by NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft as it passed through the Pluto system on July 14, 2015.


6. Two interstellar travelers

NASA’s twin Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft explore where nothing on Earth has gone before. Launched in 1977, each probe is much further from Earth and the Sun than Pluto. In August 2012, Voyager 1 made its historic entry into interstellar space, the region between stars, filled with matter ejected by the death of nearby stars millions of years ago. Voyager 2 entered interstellar space on November 5, 2018. Both spacecraft are still sending scientific information about their surroundings through NASA’s Deep Space Network, or DSN.


Sirius

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

7. Double Stars

Sirius is the brightest star in our sky. It is nicknamed “the Dog Star” because it is the brightest star in the constellation Canis Major (“the Great Dog” in English). The main reason Sirius is so bright is that it is one of the closest stars to our Sun, just 8.6 light years away. Sirius is actually a binary star system, with a small white dwarf (although you’d need a decent-sized telescope to see it). Sirius is super easy to locate: just look for the constellation Orion. The three bright stars that make up Orion’s belt point downward, toward Sirius. (Unless you’re in the southern hemisphere, and they’re pointing *up* towards Sirius.) Bonus note: The Voyager 2 spacecraft is actually heading towards Sirius. It will pass within 4.3 light years of the bright star in about 300,000 years.


8. A world with two suns

NASA’s Kepler mission discovered a world where two suns set on the horizon instead of just one. The planet, called Kepler-16b, is the most “Tatooine-like” planet ever found in our galaxy and is depicted here in this artist’s concept with its twin stars. (Tatooine is the name of Luke Skywalker’s homeworld in the sci-fi movie “Star Wars”.) In this case, the planet is not considered habitable. It’s a cold world, with a gaseous surface. NASA missions have since discovered at least one dozen other planets orbiting two suns.


9. See Double

No, these are not two images of the same moon. Saturn’s sister moons Rhea and Dione appear side by side in this image captured by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft. The image was taken in visible light on November 1, 2005, when Cassini was about 1.1 million miles (1.8 million kilometers) from Rhea, the top image, and 800 000 miles (1.2 million kilometers) from Dione.


10. Rovers on Mars

NASA has two rovers operating on Mars: Perseverance (March 2020), which has just passed the one-year mark on the red planet; and Curiousity (Mars Science Laboratory), which landed on August 5, 2012. This is not the first time NASA has had two rovers on Mars. The twin Opportunity and spirit rovers landed on Mars in 2004. Spirit lasted 20 times longer than its original design until its final communication on Earth in March 2010. Opportunity’s mission is complete in February 2019. ​

]]>