planets solar – Sinia Planeta http://sinia-planeta.com/ Wed, 09 Mar 2022 01:44:05 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://sinia-planeta.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/icon-50-120x120.png planets solar – Sinia Planeta http://sinia-planeta.com/ 32 32 The Webb Space Telescope will examine planetary remains in the Solar System Graveyard https://sinia-planeta.com/the-webb-space-telescope-will-examine-planetary-remains-in-the-solar-system-graveyard/ Tue, 08 Mar 2022 00:51:35 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/the-webb-space-telescope-will-examine-planetary-remains-in-the-solar-system-graveyard/ Illustration of the New Horizons space probe in the Kuiper Belt. These icy bodies are the remnants of the formation of the planets. At the edge of the solar system is a region called the Kuiper Belt. beyond the orbit of Neptune, this ring of icy bodies is a remnant of the early days of […]]]>

Illustration of the New Horizons space probe in the Kuiper Belt.

These icy bodies are the remnants of the formation of the planets.

At the edge of the solar system is a region called the Kuiper Belt. beyond the orbit of Neptune, this ring of icy bodies is a remnant of the early days of planet formation. Kuiper Belt objects, often pristine, come in many shapes and sizes. Some reside in pairs or multiples, while others have rings or moons. They exhibit a wide range of colors, which may indicate different formation histories or different exposure to sunlight.

These inhabitants of the Kuiper belt could teach astronomers a lot about the formation of our solar system. Nasait’s James Webb Space Telescopewhich launched on December 25, 2021, will be looking at an assortment of these items shortly after its rollout ends.

Pluto and Charon

Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, are two of the best-known residents of the Kuiper Belt. This composite of enhanced color images of Pluto (bottom right) and Charon (top left), was taken by NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft as it passed through the Pluto system on July 14, 2015. The color and luminosity of Pluto and Charon have been treated identically to allow a direct comparison of their surfaces and to highlight the similarity between the polar red terrain of Charon and the equatorial red terrain of Pluto. Pluto and Charon are shown with approximately correct relative sizes, but their true separation is not to scale. Credit: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI

Beyond Neptune’s orbit, a diverse collection of thousands of dwarf planets and other relatively small objects inhabit a region called the Kuiper Belt. These often pristine remnants from the time of the formation of planets in our solar system are called Kuiper Belt Objects, or Trans-Neptunian Objects. NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope will examine an assortment of these icy bodies in a series of programs called Time Guaranteed Observations. The goal is to learn more about the formation of our solar system.

“These are objects that are in the graveyard of the formation of the solar system,” explained Jonathan Lunine of Cornell University, a Webb interdisciplinary scientist who will use Webb to study some of these targets. “They’re in a place where they could last for billions of years, and there aren’t many places like that in our solar system. We would like to know what they look like.

Neptune Lunar Triton

This global color mosaic of Neptune’s moon Triton, likely a captured KBO, was taken in 1989 by Voyager 2 during its flyby of the Neptune system. Triton is by far the largest satellite of Neptune. Credit: NASA/JPL/USGS

By studying these bodies, Lunine and his colleagues hope to discover what ices were present in the early solar system. They are the coldest worlds to display geological and atmospheric activity, so scientists are also interested in comparing them with the planets.

Kuiper Belt objects are very cold and faint, but they glow in infrared light, which is wavelengths beyond what our human eyes can see. Webb is specially designed to detect infrared light. To study these distant objects, scientists will primarily use a technique called spectroscopy, which splits light into its individual colors to determine the properties of materials that interact with that light.

A wide assortment

People in the Kuiper Belt come in different shapes and sizes. Some reside in pairs or multiples, while others have rings or moons. They exhibit a wide range of colors, which may indicate different formation histories or different exposure to sunlight.

New Horizons of Arrokoth

Although not on Webb’s list of targets, Arrokoth is likely one example among many Kuiper Belt objects. The most distant object ever visited by a spacecraft, it is made up of two joined planetesimals. Arrokoth was photographed by the New Horizons spacecraft in December 2018 and January 2019. Credit: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI/Roman Tkachenko

“Some appear to be more red in color, others more blue. Why so?” said Heidi Hammel, Webb Interdisciplinary Scientist for Solar System Observations. She is also vice president for science at the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) in Washington, D.C. why there are these different populations in the Kuiper Belt.

Expelled from the club

Included between Jupiter and Neptune, and crossing the orbit of one or more of the giant planets, is a different population of objects called centaurs. These are small solar system bodies that have been ejected from the Kuiper Belt. In addition to observing present-day Kuiper Belt Objects, these Webb programs will study Solar System bodies that have been “kicked out of the club.” These ancient Kuiper Belt Objects have orbits that have been significantly perturbed, bringing them considerably closer to the Sun.

“Because they cross the orbits of Neptune, Uranusand Saturn, Centaurs are short-lived. So they’ve usually only been around for about 10 million years,” explained John Stansberry of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Stansberry leads a different team that will use Webb to study the Kuiper Belt Objects. “At this point they have an interaction with one of the major planets which is very strong, and they are either thrown into the Sun or kicked out of the solar system.”

Another body Webb will study is Neptune’s moon Triton. The largest of the Ice Giant’s 13 moons, Triton shares many similarities with Pluto. “Even though it is Neptune’s moon, we have evidence to suggest it is a Kuiper Belt Object that got too close to Neptune at some point in its past. and it was captured orbiting Neptune,” Hammel said. “Triton was studied by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1989. These data from the spacecraft will provide us with very important ‘ground truth’ for our Webb observations of Kuiper Belt objects.”

A sample of the targets

Here is a small sampling of just a few of the dozens of current and ancient Kuiper Belt objects that Webb will observe:

  • Pluto and Charon: The dwarf planet Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, are two of the best-known residents of the Kuiper Belt. Pluto has an atmosphere, haze and seasons. It has geological activity on its surface and may have an ocean inside. In addition to Charon, it is home to four other moons: Nix, Hydra, Styx, and Kerberos. The Webb data will complement observations made by NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft when it flew by the Pluto system in 2015.
  • Eris: Almost the size of Pluto, Eris is the second largest known dwarf planet in the solar system. At its furthest point, the mysterious Eris is more than 97 times farther from the Sun than Earth. Its distance makes it difficult to observe, but Webb will tell scientists a lot about the types of ice on its surface.
  • Sedna: With its deep red hue, Sedna is actually located beyond the main Kuiper Belt. It takes about 11,400 years to complete an orbit, and the furthest point in this very elongated orbit is estimated to be 940 times the distance from Earth to the Sun.
  • Haumea: This large, rapidly rotating body is shaped like an egg, and scientists would like to know why. In addition to moons, it also appears to have a system of rings. With Webb, the scientists hope to learn more about the formation of these rings.
  • Chariklo: The largest centaur, Chariklo is also the first asteroid to possess a ring system. It was the fifth ring system found in our solar system, after Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune. The rings are thought to be between two and four miles wide.

Another program, called Target of Opportunity, will observe a Kuiper Belt object passing in front of a star, should such an alignment occur during the first two years of Webb’s life. Called occultation, this type of observation can reveal the size of an object.

The few spacecraft that have flown near the Kuiper Belt Objects have only been able to study these intriguing objects for a very short time. With Webb, astronomers can target more Kuiper Belt objects over an extended period. The result will be new insights into the earliest history of our solar system.

The James Webb Space Telescope will be the world’s first space-based science observatory after its deployment in 2022. Webb will solve the mysteries of our solar system, look beyond distant worlds around other stars, and probe the mysterious structures and origins of our universe. and our place in it. Webb is an international program led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.

A previous version of this article was published in October 2020.

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Here’s what happens when space junk hits the moon | Astronomy https://sinia-planeta.com/heres-what-happens-when-space-junk-hits-the-moon-astronomy/ Sat, 05 Mar 2022 17:15:00 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/heres-what-happens-when-space-junk-hits-the-moon-astronomy/ It’s been a tough week. The world has watched the Russian invasion of Ukraine unfold during a pandemic that still holds the world firmly in its grip after more than two years. The attacks and resulting sanctions imposed by the US and Europe are having a huge impact – and even space is not banned. […]]]>

It’s been a tough week.

The world has watched the Russian invasion of Ukraine unfold during a pandemic that still holds the world firmly in its grip after more than two years.

The attacks and resulting sanctions imposed by the US and Europe are having a huge impact – and even space is not banned. The crisis is expected to delay the launch of Europe’s first Mars rover scheduled for next September, and questions remain over NASA’s cooperation with Russia over the International Space Station.

A never-ending cycle of events that elicits despair can feel exhausting, but turning to sources of admiration in difficult times can be encouraging. When the pandemic began, many discovered a passion for the twinkling delights of stargazing.

Fortunately, the natural wonders never stop. Let’s keep exploring the inspiring world of discovery and always have hope.

Lunar Update

I’ll see you on the other side of the moon.

A rocket part was on a collision course with its surface Friday morning, moving at around 5,500 miles per hour (8,851 kilometers per hour). We may not have confirmation for some time. But what could have been a moon lemon turned into a unique research opportunity.

And don’t worry – you didn’t miss a spectacular sight since it was supposed to hit from the other shady lunar side (but we have an idea of ​​what it might have looked like).

NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter – which did not witness the event – will be keeping an eye out for a crater that may have formed from a possible collision. The moon has many craters – this may well be the first created by errant rocket remnants.

And tracking space junk, especially to avoid unwanted collisions, has become the passion project of none other than Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak.

Dino-mite!

You know that dramatic confrontation between Stegosaurus and T. rex in “Fantasia”? It never happened. The two highly recognizable dinosaurs never co-existed, and the time between them is longer than the time between the reign of T. rex and humans.

But the two dinos share the spotlight this week.

And, it turns out, Tyrannosaurus rex can be misunderstood. Differences between fossils of the fearsome predator may suggest there was more than one species roaming the planet, according to a new study. This means that the tyrant lizard king may have existed alongside Tyrannosaurus imperator and the slimmer Tyrannosaurus regina.

Meanwhile, a new fossil may belong to one of the oldest stegosaurs ever discovered. The specimen has a “really weird mix of features,” including physical traits that can’t be found in other stegosaurs, revealing how these armored dinosaurs evolved.

fantastic creatures

For many, pets have been the gentle, reliable pals that have helped us through the past two years of the pandemic.

They have lifted our moods, reduced our stress, and served as perfect binge-watching companions.

These simple behaviors have also been passed down to a practical scientific level. Research on the animal-human bond has exploded during the pandemic.

Pet owners say their fuzzy best friends have reduced loneliness and provided much-needed emotional support. Given that we are still living in uncertain times, the most insightful research is yet to come.

wonderment

We asked for your best hiccup remedies, and boy, did you deliver.

Then we took these creative techniques to experts and tested them to see if the science backed them up.

The result? Even some of the wackiest solutions — like thinking about cows, taking a spoonful of sugar, or acting out your own Michelangelo-style “Creation of Adam” moment — actually work for a variety of reasons.

Thanks for taking the time to weigh in with so many imaginative answers. Don’t forget to bow down – and name seven men you know who are bald if you have hiccups.

The climate has changed

We lack the means to adapt to the climate crisis. That’s the warning of a new UN-backed report released this week that illustrates the widespread and disruptive impacts of human-caused climate change.

Extreme weather and rising levels of seals are altering once-familiar landscapes and could even wipe out enduring historic sites, including around 190 lining Africa’s coasts.

The Pillars of Carthage, the ruins of the Roman amphitheater at Sabratha and a 125,000-year-old coral reef are just some of the significant treasures at risk of flooding and erosion over the next 30 years.

But there’s still time to save these heritage-rich sites – and the solution is more natural than you might think.

Discoveries

Let’s end on these good notes:

— A tiny “flower” formation has been spotted on Mars by the Curiosity rover, and it could shed light on the history of water on the Red Planet.

— This invasive species was named using an ethnic slur. After months of decisions, the butterfly finally has a new name.

— Stonehenge may have served as an astronomically correct solar calendar. New research illustrates how it worked.

Do you like what you read? Oh, but there’s more. register here to get the next edition of Wonder Theory, brought to you by the CNN Space and Science writer, delivered to your inbox Ashley Stricklandwho marvels at the planets beyond our solar system and the discoveries of the ancient world.

The-CNN-Wire

™ & © 2022 Cable News Network, Inc., a WarnerMedia company. All rights reserved.

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Former astronaut suggests specific planet for James Webb to search for life https://sinia-planeta.com/former-astronaut-suggests-specific-planet-for-james-webb-to-search-for-life/ Wed, 23 Feb 2022 16:24:22 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/former-astronaut-suggests-specific-planet-for-james-webb-to-search-for-life/ NASA’s James Webb Telescope is preparing to officially begin science operations later this summer. And scientists are already excited that it is starting to scan distant worlds for signs of life. There are plenty of places to look, of course. Researchers have already confirmed the existence of nearly 5,000 exoplanets, and many more are on […]]]>

NASA’s James Webb Telescope is preparing to officially begin science operations later this summer. And scientists are already excited that it is starting to scan distant worlds for signs of life.

There are plenty of places to look, of course. Researchers have already confirmed the existence of nearly 5,000 exoplanets, and many more are on the way. And of the roughly 300 million planets suspected of harboring a “Goldilocks” region in which liquid water and therefore life could exist, NASA’s Kepler mission alone has confirmed several hundred.

Canadian astronaut legend Chris Hadfield has his own suggestion, review this past weekend that Kepler-442b would be “an excellent planet for [NASA’s James Webb Telescope] to have. »

Hadfield’s reasoning, according to a quote tweet, was that some experts actually believe that Kepler-442b – which is about 1,200 light-years from Earth, by the way – could be Continued habitable than our own planet.

In an article published in The Astrophysical Journal in 2015, a team of astrobiologists argued that several exoplanets identified by NASA’s Kepler and K2 missions, including Kepler-442b, were very likely to possess liquid surface water, like Earth.

“We ranked the known planets Kepler and K2 for habitability and found that several had higher values ​​of H [the probability of it being terrestrial] than Earth,” reads the newspaper.

The researchers’ goal was to narrow down the number of exoplanet candidates so we could start racing and observing the most likely candidates first.

“Basically, we devised a way to take all the available observational data and develop a prioritization scheme, so that as we enter a period where there are hundreds of targets available, we could be able to say, ‘OK, this is the one we want to start with,’ said lead author Rory Barnes of the University of Washington. Wired in 2015.

NASA’s JWST will use a variety of methods to closely observe the atmospheres of exoplanets orbiting distant stars. Some scientists even suspect that it will be sensitive enough to detect air pollution from any alien civilization lurking there.

Either way, we might find out soon. The telescope recently locked onto its first star and is now calibrating its delicate array of golden mirrors. This is our best chance yet to take a close look at habitable planets outside our own solar system.

Learn more about the JWST: Scientists Are Already Plotting How James Webb Could Detect Alien Civilizations

Would you like to support the adoption of clean energy? Find out how much money (and the planet!) you could save by going solar at UnderstandSolar.com. By registering through this link, Futurism.com may receive a small commission.

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Bad astronomy | A white dwarf directly seen eating planetary debris https://sinia-planeta.com/bad-astronomy-a-white-dwarf-directly-seen-eating-planetary-debris/ Tue, 15 Feb 2022 14:00:04 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/bad-astronomy-a-white-dwarf-directly-seen-eating-planetary-debris/ For the first time, astronomers have found direct evidence of a dead star currently eating the remnants of its former planets, the debris accelerated to hellish speeds and temperatures before slamming into the star’s surface. You might want to read that again, because wow. We know this has been going on for a while, but […]]]>

For the first time, astronomers have found direct evidence of a dead star currently eating the remnants of its former planets, the debris accelerated to hellish speeds and temperatures before slamming into the star’s surface.

You might want to read that again, because wow. We know this has been going on for a while, but so far the evidence has been circumstantial. The new observations have detected, metaphorically speaking, the death cries of the debris as they plunge toward their final destruction.

The dead star in this case is called G29-38. It’s a white dwarf; the core of a star like the Sun exposed to space after the star has become a red giant and expelled its outer layers. A white dwarf is small, hot and very massive, which makes it extremely dense too.

G29-38 has about 60% of the Sun’s mass squeezed into a ball just 18,000 kilometers in diameter, less than half the size of Earth. A cubic centimeter (about the size of a six-sided die) of its material would weigh half a ton. The gravity on its surface is about 150,000 times that of Earth — I would weigh over 11,000 tons on its surface, but I would also be a vapor since the temperature is around 12,000°C.

Gravity on a white dwarf is so strong that anything heavy like iron or calcium sinks fairly quickly to its depths. We expect to see only hydrogen and helium there. However, with many of these stars we see heavier elements, and over the years it has become clear that this is due to rubble, planetary debris from their previous systems of planets that have been torn apart and fallen on their surfaces. In fact, one of my favorite astronomy stories is that the very first evidence that we ever had other planets outside of our solar system – from 1917! – comes from exactly this kind of event.

We can infer the amount of material falling on the surface of a white dwarf by the abundance of these heavier elements there. But that heavily depends on the theoretical modeling of how matter mixes with the strange fluid of a white dwarf, so it’s indirect. So what would direct evidence look like?

X-rays.

The material is abruptly accelerated by the star’s gravity and hits the surface at something like 5 million kph. The heat generated can reach millions of degrees, and this fierce impact creates eruptions of energy, emitted in the form of X-rays.

Astronomers used the Chandra X-Ray orbital observatory to take a long look at G29-38, watching it for more than 100,000 seconds, more than a solid day (link to article). He saw faint X-ray emission from the star indicating the slow accretion of matter on its surface. Based on the luminosity, they estimate that about 1,600 tons of disturbed planetary matter screams at the surface of the white dwarf every second.

Previous observations using the abundances of heavy elements swimming on the surface of G29-38 give roughly the same number, which is reassuring. He also confirms that this is the source of the X-rays.

If a white dwarf is in a close orbit around another star, it can also accumulate matter that way, but the rate of matter falling to the surface is 100,000 times higher, 10 to 100 times higher hot and thousands if not millions of times brighter than what’s out here. Also, G29-38 is a loner, the core of a lone star, so there is nothing else around it to be the source of matter. It is known to emit more infrared light than a lone white dwarf, which is exactly what you would expect from a debris disk of planetary chunks orbiting around it, heated by the intense light of the star.

Overall, the evidence is very clear: it was once a star much like the Sun that happily warmed up a system of planets around it…but then it died, became a zombie, and started killing them. to eat.

It’s not the happiest of endings, but I admit it’s really interesting. And a reminder that in, oh, seven billion years, the same thing will happen here. The Sun will expand, gobble up the three inner planets – that means us too – become a white dwarf, then destroy and maybe eat some of the outer planets as well, unless they get lost in space over the course of the next hundred billion years.

If you’ve ever wondered what it would be like to be a character in a horror movie, well, you are one. It’s just that the Universe takes a lot longer to get to the third act.

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Can we measure dark matter in our solar system? https://sinia-planeta.com/can-we-measure-dark-matter-in-our-solar-system/ Thu, 10 Feb 2022 13:01:14 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/can-we-measure-dark-matter-in-our-solar-system/ See bigger. | Artist’s concept of the furthest outgoing spacecraft from Earth, Traveler 1, launched in the late 1970s. The circles represent the orbits of the main outer planets of our solar system: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Voyager 1 is now more than 14 billion miles (23 billion km; about 150 Earth-Sun Units or […]]]>
See bigger. | Artist’s concept of the furthest outgoing spacecraft from Earth, Traveler 1, launched in the late 1970s. The circles represent the orbits of the main outer planets of our solar system: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Voyager 1 is now more than 14 billion miles (23 billion km; about 150 Earth-Sun Units or AU) from Earth. To detect dark matter in our solar system, scientists say, a spacecraft could be less distant than Voyager 1 currently is. Picture via Nasa/ ESA/ G. Bacon.

Dark matter is invading our solar system

Black matter does not interact with ordinary matter. It is invisible to light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation. Modern instruments therefore cannot “see” it. But dark matter has mass. And that means it has a gravitational pull. Through studies of its attraction, astronomers have gathered overwhelming indirect evidence to suggest that dark matter permeates our universe. And so our solar system – our family of planets orbiting the sun – must also contain dark matter. On February 1, 2022, NASA reported on a new study that calculates the attraction of dark matter to objects in our solar system, for example, spacecraft and distant comets. Then, the study proposes an experiment to detect dark matter within our solar system.

The 2022 lunar calendars are here. Order yours before they’re gone!

The study is called Leaving the solar system: dark matter makes the difference. the Peer-reviewed newspaper Royal Astronomical Society Monthly Notices published it.

The lead author of the study is a mathematician and astrophysicist Edward Belbruno from Princeton University and Yeshiva University. He calculated what he called the galactic forcethat is, the overall gravitational pull of normal matter combined with dark matter, of the entire Milky Way galaxy.

The solar system is half dark matter and half normal matter.

He discovered that in our solar system, about 45% of this force comes from dark matter and 55% comes from normal matter, called baryonic matter. This suggests a roughly 50/50 split between the mass of dark matter and normal matter in our sun’s family.

So half of the solar system could be dark matter! Still, Belbruno said he was surprised that the percentage of dark matter in our solar system isn’t higher:

I was a bit surprised by the relatively small contribution of galactic force due to dark matter felt in our solar system compared to the force due to normal matter. This is because most dark matter is found in the outer parts of our galaxy, far from our solar system.

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Pie chart showing dark matter, ordinary matter and dark energy.
You see slightly varying estimates for the percentage of dark matter in our universe. But, according to modern theorists, there is far more dark matter than ordinary matter in the universe. Picture via NASA/ WMAP.

The Galactic Force and Our Outgoing Spaceship

NASA explained that Belbruno and the study’s co-author james green from NASA went on to predict that the gravity of dark matter interacts “very slightly” with all spacecraft that NASA has sent on paths outside our solar system:

This could include, for example, retirees Pioneer 10 and 11 probes launched in 1972 and 1973, respectively; the Voyager 1 and 2 probes that have been exploring for more than 40 years and have entered interstellar space; and the New Horizons spacecraft that flew over Pluto and Arrokoth in the Kuiper Belt.

It’s a very small effect. After traveling billions of miles, the trajectory of a spacecraft like Pioneer 10 would deviate only about 1.5 meters due to the influence of dark matter, NASA explained. Yet… the space is vast. And our outgoing spacecraft will eventually travel billions of miles.

The attraction of dark matter beyond Pluto

Belbruno and Green calculated that Earth craft would feel the pull of dark matter about 30,000 astronomical units (AU) from the sun. That’s 30,000 times the Earth-Sun distance. It’s way beyond Pluto, but still inside the Oort cloud, which extends out to 100,000 astronomical units. So that would have big implications. NASA explained:

This means that the gravity of dark matter could have played a role in the trajectory of objects like ‘Oumuamua, the comet or the cigar-shaped asteroid that came from another star system and passed through the inner solar system. in 2017. Its unusually fast speed could be explained by the gravity of dark matter pushing it along for millions of years, the authors say.

If there’s a giant planet in the far reaches of the solar system — a hypothetical object called Planet 9 or Planet X that scientists have been searching for in recent years — dark matter would also influence its orbit. If this planet exists, dark matter might even push it away from the area where scientists are currently looking for it, write Green and Belbruno. Dark matter may also have caused some of the Oort Cloud’s comets to escape the Sun’s orbit altogether.

Could we measure the attraction of dark matter in our solar system?

These scientists believe that – to measure the effects of dark matter in our solar system – a future spacecraft would not necessarily have to travel 30,000 AU. But he would have to carry the right equipment. At a distance of 100 AU, they said, a future spacecraft could help astronomers measure the influence of dark matter in the following ways:

Specifically, a spacecraft equipped with radioisotope power, a technology that allowed Pioneer 10 and 11, the Voyagers and New Horizon to fly very far from the sun, may be able to make this measurement. Such a spaceship could carry a reflective ball and drop it an appropriate distance. The bullet would only feel galactic forces [combined gravitational force from both dark and ordinary matter]. During this time, the spacecraft would experience a thermal strength of the decaying radioactive element in its power system, in addition to galactic forces.

By subtracting the thermal force, the researchers could then examine how the galactic force relates to deviations from the respective trajectories of the bullet and the spacecraft. These deviations would be measured with a laser when the two objects fly parallel to each other.

Interstellar probe mission

A proposed NASA mission called Interstellar probe might be able to do that. This 50-year one-way mission into the depths of space is currently being studied by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory. Its goal is to travel about 500 AU from the sun – 500 times the Earth-Sun distance – to explore the space between the stars. Can we equip this mission with a “reflecting ball”, as described above? I vote yes!

Learn more from NASA about measuring dark matter in our solar system

5 spaceships leaving the solar system.
See bigger. | These 5 man-made spaceships are currently leaving the solar system. Picture via Nasa.

Conclusion: Science is about measuring things. And, according to modern astronomers, dark matter permeates our solar system. Can we find a way to measure it? Two scientists say yes and propose a mechanism.

Source: Leaving the solar system, dark matter makes the difference

Via NASA

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British astronomy professor shares his thoughts on the new Webb Space Telescope https://sinia-planeta.com/british-astronomy-professor-shares-his-thoughts-on-the-new-webb-space-telescope/ Wed, 09 Feb 2022 09:00:30 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/british-astronomy-professor-shares-his-thoughts-on-the-new-webb-space-telescope/ LEXINGTON, Kentucky (February 9, 2022) — Less than two months ago, NASA, in coordination with the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency, launched the James Webb Space Telescope – the largest telescope ever built – on its 1.6 million miles away from Earth. The project lasts almost 30 years and is specifically designed […]]]>

LEXINGTON, Kentucky (February 9, 2022) — Less than two months ago, NASA, in coordination with the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency, launched the James Webb Space Telescope – the largest telescope ever built – on its 1.6 million miles away from Earth. The project lasts almost 30 years and is specifically designed to see some of the first stars and galaxies that formed in the universe.

Since its launch, the space agency has worked, from Earth, to get the telescope unfolded, aligned and powered up – a very meticulous process that continues to see success after success. Just this week, the telescope detected its first photons from a distant star.

To find out more about this historic breakthrough in space exploration, UKNow caught up with Gary Ferland, Professor of Physics and Astronomy at the UK College of Arts and Sciences. Ferland shared his thoughts on the new observatory, how the UK will be involved and what it means to help humanity discover its place in the universe.

UKNow: The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which is said to be the largest space observatory ever built. What did Hubble allow us to discover?

Ferland: The answer is the universe. HST has been worked on planets in our solar system, planets around other stars, our home galaxy the “Milky Way”, other galaxies, supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies, the formation of galaxies little after the birth of the universe, and the Big Bang itself. HST’s original plans did not expect these findings since many of these research questions were unknown at the time. This is the lesson of these large telescopes – they are machines of discovery. There’s an old adage in astronomy, the universe isn’t as weird as we think it is, it’s stranger than we are. can think.

We have no real idea what JWST will do in the next 20 years, but we know it will be wonderful. Stranger than we can think.

UKNow: How will the Webb Telescope take us to the next level in terms of space observation?

Ferland: JWST is 10 times more capable and can detect galaxies that are too distant and faint for HST to see. The aim of the JWST is to study, for the first time, how stars and galaxies formed when the universe was less than 500 million years old. That’s about 13 billion years in the past. HST can study galaxies that existed when the universe was a few billion years old or older. There is a huge “undiscovered country” – the time when galaxies were too distant and faint to be studied by HST, the time when the first stars and galaxies were formed, the first billion years of the universe – waiting for JWST to find out.

But 20 years from now, it’s safe to predict that we’ll be amazed and amazed to look back and see what JWST Actually discovered. It is safe to predict that we cannot predict it today.

UKNow: What unanswered questions/mysteries do we hope to uncover with the Webb Telescope?

Ferland: My own research focuses on quasars, the birth of galaxies around massive black holes that existed when the universe was young, and how chemical elements were created. JWST will directly seeing this for the first time. More generally, JWST will study planets around other stars and the young universe.

UKNow: How is the Webb able to ‘see’ so far back in time?

Ferland: Two big reasons:

Very distant galaxies are very faint, too faint to be seen by HST. JWST is much taller, so his mirror can gather more light and he can see farther. JWST can observe more distant parts of the universe than HST could see.

The universe is expanding, so light emitted by more distant objects is shifted to longer wavelengths. Visible light emitted by stars or galaxies is Doppler shifted into the infrared by this expansion. Light that would be visible in the local universe is shifted into the infrared, a type of light that HST was not designed to observe. JWST was designed to operate in the infrared.

Thus, JWST will see much further, see further in time and detect the light that comes to us from that distant time.

UKNow: What are the other key differences between the Hubble and Webb telescopes?

Ferland: Scientifically, JWST has a much larger detector, so it can see fainter and more distant objects. JWST can see in the infrared, the type of light emitted by stars and galaxies in the very young universe. These differences have caused many technical differences in the deployment and orbital location of the telescope. More importantly, he had to get very far from the heat of the Earth for his infrared detectors to work properly. It is located in one of the Lagrangian points Earth – Moon – Sun, a place where gravity balances. It is about five times farther from Earth than the moon and about 2,000 times farther than HST.

UKNow: What was involved in sending the Webb Telescope into space?

Ferland: Flying JWST was a collaborative work of great beauty. It took the combined talents of thousands of women and men, working closely together for more than a decade, to achieve this. This was possible thanks to the continued support of dozens of countries. It’s wonderful to see so many people and countries, working closely together with a common goal for many years, to find out how the universe came to be.

UKNow: When should we expect to see some of the first images of Webb?

Ferland: Rumor has it that the first PR images will be a few months away, but NASA will take its time to get the job done right. They made no official promise.

UKNow: What excites you the most? Are UK astronomy researchers (like yourself) considering or hoping to do future work with the Webb Observatory?

Ferland: NASA has generously supported my program here in the UK for several years. We develop the theoretical tools needed to understand JWST observations. These JWST grants supported Project Cloudy, a large astrophysical theory computer code that helps explain what JWST detects. Three UK graduate students – Maryam Dehghanian, Priyanka Chakraborty and Chamani Gunasekera – were all supported by JWST scholarships at the start of their PhDs in the UK. theses. A British research professor, Marios Chatzikos, was also supported by JWST. Chamani continues to work on developing the tools needed to understand JWST observations.

It’s impossible to predict what we’ll be doing with JWST in a few years, but the UK will be there.

UKNow: What else do you think the public should know about the Webb Telescope and what it means to learn more about our place in the universe?

Ferland: It’s a beacon that we can all work together and achieve wonderful things. A thousand years from now they’ll say that’s when humans first looked back at the first half billion years of the universe and discovered how the first galaxies, stars and planets formed. . JWST did. It is a breathtaking achievement.

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It takes a special type of planet to make a moon https://sinia-planeta.com/it-takes-a-special-type-of-planet-to-make-a-moon/ Tue, 01 Feb 2022 16:25:49 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/it-takes-a-special-type-of-planet-to-make-a-moon/ University communication Today This artist’s concept depicts two celestial bodies crashing into each other, creating a disc of mostly molten, partially vaporized rock that eventually became the moon. NASA/JPL-Caltech Based on analyzes of lunar rock samples that Apollo and other space missions have brought back to Earth, scientists know more about Earth’s moon than any […]]]>

University communication

Today

This artist’s concept depicts two celestial bodies crashing into each other, creating a disc of mostly molten, partially vaporized rock that eventually became the moon.
NASA/JPL-Caltech

Based on analyzes of lunar rock samples that Apollo and other space missions have brought back to Earth, scientists know more about Earth’s moon than any other planetary body. However, questions continue to vex scientists regarding how a planet forms a moon and why some planets have moons while others do not.

In a new paper published in Nature Communications, researchers from the University of Rochester, the University of Arizona and the Tokyo Institute of Technology have made an important discovery that helps unlock the mysteries of the moon. The new study proposes that planets must be of a certain composition and within a limited mass range for moons to form.

“The question we decided to answer is: can all planets form substantial moons?” said the study’s co-author Erik Asphaugprofessor at the Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory.

As scientists continue to explore the possibility of other life in the universe, the research has important implications for determining the factors that make a planet habitable. A planet may not need a big moon to be habitable, but Earth’s moon is vitally important in shaping life as we know it: it controls day length and tides. oceans, which affect the biological cycles of the planet. The Moon also contributes to Earth’s climate by stabilizing its axis of rotation, providing an ideal environment for life to grow and evolve.

“By understanding lunar formations, we have a better constraint on what to look for when looking for Earth-like planets,” said the study’s lead author, Miki Nakajima, assistant professor of science at Earth and Environment at the University of Rochester. “We expect exomoons (moons orbiting planets outside our solar system) to be everywhere, but so far we haven’t confirmed any. Our constraints will be useful for future observations.”

Earth is the only planet known to harbor life and has a number of characteristics that make it unique. These include active plate tectonics, a strong magnetic field, and a fairly large moon. More than a quarter the size of Earth, the moon raises tides in the oceans that are important for life, so researchers speculated that a moon could be a potentially beneficial feature for harboring life on d other planets.

It is generally believed that Earth’s large moon was generated by a collision between proto-Earth and another planet about 4.5 billion years ago. The collision resulted in the formation of a disc of mostly molten, partially vaporized rock that eventually became the moon.

This illustration shows the relative sizes of the planets needed to form moons

For rocky planets larger than Earth by 60% in size, or larger than six times the mass of Earth (the upper left planet), and for icy planets more than 30% larger than Earth, or an Earth-mass (the first two planets on the right), it is not possible to form large moons by giant impacts, according to the new study. Such “super-Earths” do not exist in our solar system, so the prediction applies to astronomical searches for planets around other stars. The prediction is consistent with planet-moon systems in the solar system, including Earth-Moon (left) and Pluto-Charon (right) that are shown here.
Nakajima et al.

To find out if other planets can form similarly sized moons, the researchers ran 3D computer simulations, starting with a number of hypothetical planets of varying masses. Infant planets either had an architecture similar to Earth’s—namely, a mantle of rock and an iron core—or icy planets in which the mantle is water ice and the core is rock.

They found that if the planet is too massive, giant impacts produce discs made entirely of vapor. This is because impacts between more massive planets are more energetic and occur at a higher speed. Over time, the vapor disk from such an impact cools and liquid moons – the building blocks of moons – form.

“These growing moonlets experience a strong drag force as they pass through the vapor disk, which slows them down,” Asphaug said. “In a short time, they succumb to the gravity of the planet and fall into it, without making a moon.”

Once the disc has cooled and its vapor has begun to dissipate, the moons face less drag and have a better chance of turning into moons. However, at that time a significant part of them were lost to the planet. The researchers conclude that a disk composed only of vapor is not capable of forming large moons. The disc must initially start at low vapor content for the moonlets to develop without experiencing a strong gas drag.

“Giant impacts work great for creating moons, but only up to a point,” Asphaug said.

The findings provide important benchmarks for researchers studying planets in other solar systems, the authors said. In particular, some planets are too massive to form a sizeable moon. Computer simulations have shown rocky planets more than six times the mass of Earth – so-called super-Earths – end up with vapor-only discs, meaning a large moon couldn’t develop . The same is true for planets with a composition rich in water or ice whose mass exceeds that of the Earth; they too will end up with vapor-only discs and no moon.

Thousands of exoplanets have been discovered, but astronomers have yet to definitively spot a moon orbiting a planet outside our solar system.

“We are still a long way from learning the different types of moons that orbit exoplanets that exist,” Asphaug said.

“The search for exoplanets has focused on large planets, generally larger than 1.6 Earth radii (60% larger than Earth),” Nakajima said. “We propose that instead we should look at smaller planets because they are likely better candidates for hosting fractional moons.”

The research is based on computer simulations that are the result of efforts since the 1980s to understand how Earth’s moon formed from a giant impact at the end of Earth’s formation, Asphaug said. .

“Until now most of the attention has been on the formation of Earth’s moon, but we think the moon started out as an ocean of flying magma, not primarily vapour,” he said. he stated, referring to the disc of molten rock around the early Earth. “These moons may have accreted into the major body we know and love.”

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Review of the year 2021 in astronomy https://sinia-planeta.com/review-of-the-year-2021-in-astronomy/ Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:02:57 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/review-of-the-year-2021-in-astronomy/ In 2021, there were plenty of big space stories in the news, including two lunar eclipses in May and November. Coincidentally, two more total lunar eclipses will occur in May and November 2022. We were also entertained by three large meteor showers in January, August and December, but the moon caused major interference. The Northern […]]]>

In 2021, there were plenty of big space stories in the news, including two lunar eclipses in May and November. Coincidentally, two more total lunar eclipses will occur in May and November 2022. We were also entertained by three large meteor showers in January, August and December, but the moon caused major interference. The Northern Lights were prominent last month – especially in western Canada, painting the sky green.

The endless list of exoplanets continues to grow, with a total of 4,884 confirmed worlds and 8,288 other candidates. This research continues via terrestrial and space telescopes. So the next time you look at those twinkling points of light, you’ll be looking at the mini-solar systems of at least one planet orbiting its parent star. After all, the sun is just one of 300 billion stars in the Milky Way.

It was around this time last year that Japan’s Hayabusa mission successfully returned soil samples from the Itokawa asteroid. The samples show that water and organic matter from the asteroid itself have evolved chemically over time. It has long been the idea of
astronomers and scientists that the building blocks of organic compounds needed to create life began in the solar system and were delivered to young earth via meteorites. Missions like this have shed new light on that theory. Meteorites and comets contain small amounts of water. Impacts over millions of years most likely provided water to the earth.

Comparable to the list of exoplanets, another 70 rogue planets have been detected floating in space. They are “outcasts” of their solar system, driven by an event such as the explosion of the star, thus launching it on a path to nowhere. Or some could have been overpowered by larger planets in their solar system and launched from there, away from the (possible) light and heat of their sun.

Until recently, the sun was studied by ground-based telescopes and orbiting satellites. The amount of information learned is exceptional, but the missing key was a physical examination. Never before had a spacecraft touched the sun until the launch of the Solar Parker Probe in 2018. Over the years, the craft performed multiple maneuvers as it approached the sun. In December 2021, the probe hit the upper atmosphere of the solar corona, which is only visible from Earth during a total solar eclipse when the moon blocks out blinding light. Over the next few years, the probe will approach our star, and by 2025 it will be racing at unprecedented speeds.
speed of 690,000 kilometers per hour, or 192 kilometers per second. Its 11.4 centimeter thick heat shield combines it to operate at around 29 degrees Celsius and not fry the electronics.

The newest addition to the Martian fleet came with the deployment of the SUV-sized Perseverance and Ingenuity helicopter anchored below. The small helicopter’s two blades rotate in opposite directions to help provide lift in the thin Martian atmosphere. To date, he has logged 30 minutes in a series of short flights. This is the first time that such a vehicle has been used on the red planet.

Private companies have proven they have the right hardware to get into space – not just NASA. Jeff Bezos and Blue Origin allowed 90-year-old William Shatner and retired National Football League (NFL) star Michael Strahan to touch space as they crossed the 100 Karman line. But Elon Musk took space travel one step further by ferrying astronauts and supplies to the International Space Station via SpaceX.
Freighter Dragon. It’s the same Dragon capsule that was almost used as an emergency escape vehicle. The International Space Station has been subjected to a dangerous debris field from a deliberately exploded satellite. The danger has all but passed, but there have been a few moments of anxiety.

Space is dangerous. In addition to solar radiation from the sun and cosmic rays from the cosmos, more than 23,000 pieces of orbital debris larger than a softball are tracked. Half a million pieces are the size of a marble or more, with around 100 million pieces of debris – around a millimeter and slightly more. All moving at 28,000 km/h, or nearly 8 km/sec.

In September 2022, the DART mission will arrive at the 800-meter-wide asteroid Didymos to deflect a small 160-meter-wide moon Dimorphos. This is a test to see if a potential asteroid coming towards earth can be deflected slightly, thereby changing course and missing our planet. Fear not – this particular asteroid is just a test subject and is in no way on a collision course with our home planet.

The highly anticipated James Webb Space Telescope (successor to the Hubble Space Telescope) was launched on Christmas Day. It has a much larger mirror system and will study nascent galaxies in the near infrared, allowing us to see through the gas and dust of early galaxies. The sunshade is the size of a tennis court and will protect the telescope from the heat of the sun and block light from the earth and moon. It will operate at a distance of 1.5 million kilometers from Earth, where the temperature of space is -223 degrees Celsius. The JWST will be able to trace back to the beginning of the universe, some 13.8 billion years ago. One of his many projects will be to see if black holes helped create the galaxies, or if they came after. It will also search for signs of life in the atmospheres of distant exoplanets.

Clear sky.

Known as “The Backyard Astronomer,” Gary Boyle is an astronomy educator, guest speaker and monthly columnist for the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, as well as past president of the RASC Ottawa Center. He has been interviewed on over 50 Canadian radio stations as well as on television across Canada and the United States. In recognition of his public awareness of astronomy, the International Astronomical Union awarded him the name asteroid (22406) Garyboyle. Follow him on Twitter: @astroeducator, Facebook and his website: www.wondersofastronomy.com

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What is a gas giant planet and what are some examples? https://sinia-planeta.com/what-is-a-gas-giant-planet-and-what-are-some-examples/ Tue, 18 Jan 2022 20:32:00 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/what-is-a-gas-giant-planet-and-what-are-some-examples/ Gas giants are one of four types of planets in the universe, but they are easily among the most impressive. Here’s a look at what makes them unique. Outer space is filled with planets of all different shapes and sizes – some of which come in the form of gas giants. When thinking of planets, […]]]>

Gas giants are one of four types of planets in the universe, but they are easily among the most impressive. Here’s a look at what makes them unique.

Outer space is filled with planets of all different shapes and sizes – some of which come in the form of gas giants. When thinking of planets, it can be easy to assume that they are all the same. In some ways they are. All planets tend to have a circular shape, a gravitational center and usually have some type of atmosphere. However, how a world is structured varies from planet to planet.

As it stands, NASA designates the planets it finds into one of four distinct categories: terrestrial, super-earth, Neptune-like, and gas giant. Terrestrial planets are rocky worlds beyond our solar system, often composed mostly of rock or iron. Super-Earth and Neptune type planets are self-explanatory. The former represents planets larger than Earth, while the latter is a gaseous planet similar in size to Neptune. But what about gas giants? What makes these planets unique compared to other categories?

VIDEO OF THE DAY

Related: We May Soon Find Out Why Jupiter’s Great Red Spot Is Shrinking

Gas giant planets are exactly what their name implies – large planets composed almost entirely of gas. Gas giants are usually made of helium and hydrogen. They also don’t have a solid surface like you find on Earth and Mars. If anyone visited a gas giant planet, they would be surrounded only by swirling clouds of gas. And, of course, the gas giants are big. They can be similar in size to Jupiter or even larger. In NASA’s own words, “Gas giant exoplanets may be much larger than Jupiter and much closer to their stars than anything found in our solar system.”


Examples of gas giant planets


photo credit: Nasa

There are many examples of gas giants in our own solar system, including Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. All planets are quite large, but even gas giants can vary greatly in size. Neptune, for example, has a radius of 15,299 miles. It is substantially larger than the 3,958 mile radius of Earth, but many smaller than Jupiter’s 43,441 mile radii. Jupiter also has a mass two and a half times greater than all the other planets in the solar system combined. Add that and its radius, and Jupiter is the perfect embodiment of what a gas giant should look like.

Beyond the solar system, however, gas giants can become even larger than Jupiter. One of the most famous gas giants outside the solar system is 51 Pegasi b. Discovered in 1995, 51 Pegasus has about half the mass of Jupiter while having a radius 1.27 times its size. It sits about 50 light-years from Earth, orbits a yellow dwarf star, and has a stunning orange color. Even more impressive is a gas giant known as HD 100546 b. Located 358 light years from Earth, HD 100546 b is incredibly large. It has a mass 752 times greater than Jupiter and a radius 6.9 times greater. It is one of the largest gas giants ever discovered and proves just how huge these planets are. Other interesting gas giants are KELT-9b and Kepler-7b. KELT-9b is best known for its extremely hot temperatures capable of melting molecules on the planet. Kepler-7b has a bizarre composition that makes its density very similar to polystyrene foam.


And that’s the elevator pitch for the gas giants! They are large, dense, gaseous planets, often among the most impressive in the universe. There will never come a day when humans will be able to explore or live on a gas giant (at least not any time soon), but studying them from afar has always provided astronomers with enormous knowledge about them and the galaxy. Whether Jupiter, HD 100546 b or any of the other gas giants there, they are prime examples of the diversity and uniqueness of outer space.

Next: Did NASA’s Curiosity rover just find ancient life on Mars?

Source: NASA

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The James Webb Space Telescope will revolutionize astronomy and seek to find life beyond Earth https://sinia-planeta.com/the-james-webb-space-telescope-will-revolutionize-astronomy-and-seek-to-find-life-beyond-earth/ Fri, 14 Jan 2022 00:23:00 +0000 https://sinia-planeta.com/the-james-webb-space-telescope-will-revolutionize-astronomy-and-seek-to-find-life-beyond-earth/ PEORIA (HEART OF ILLINOIS ABC) – The Hubble Telescope revolutionized the way we see the universe, but now the James Webb Space Telescope is here to do the same thing, but on a bigger scale. Renae Kerrigan, science curator and planetarium director at the Peoria Riverfront Museum, said: “The James Webb Space Telescope will be […]]]>

PEORIA (HEART OF ILLINOIS ABC) – The Hubble Telescope revolutionized the way we see the universe, but now the James Webb Space Telescope is here to do the same thing, but on a bigger scale.

Renae Kerrigan, science curator and planetarium director at the Peoria Riverfront Museum, said: “The James Webb Space Telescope will be able to observe very distant objects that are obscured by gas and dust that Hubble could not see. .”

The telescope took NASA more than two decades to build and cost up to $10 billion.

Kerrigan said: “It had to be fully folded to fit in the biggest rocket available, and then once in space its main mirror had to unfold. Tt has this huge visor that had to deploy, so he had to have 50 separate deployments to get into operational form.

Last week, the telescope deployed its sunshade, a part of the telescope that’s about the size of a tennis court and is needed to block heat from the sun as well as the earth.

The telescope measures in the infrared, that is, the light that is not visible to the human eye. It uses ultra-sensitive sensors to measure heat signatures, so the telescope must be in a very cold environment.

Kerrigan added: “So he has this visor that is 5 layers of silver coded film. The temperature difference between the sunny side of the sunshade and the instrument side of the telescope is about one thousand degrees from the hot side to the cold side.

The goal is to study the atmosphere of planets outside our solar system. The stars we see at night each have their own planets, and as curious humans, we want to study and observe these planets to find out if they might look like Earth.

“The James Webb will be able to directly observe the atmospheres of these extrasolar planets as they transit through their stars, and using spectroscopy he may be able to find chemical signatures that would help us understand what that atmosphere looks like and if it’s like Earth,” Kerrigan says.

Chemical signatures such as carbon, ammonia and methane, to see if these atmospheres are similar to Earth and if they could support life.

Because the telescope had a very efficient launch and saved propellant, the life of the telescope was extended to 20 years instead of the originally planned 10.

Once the telescope reaches its Lagrange point, its fixed position to orbit the sun a million miles from Earth, the team will run tests to make sure everything is working properly.

The telescope is set to reach this position and complete the 50 precise steps to be taken over the next 10 days.

They expect to see the first images from the telescope this summer.

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