The 10 most amazing volcanoes in the solar system – the clare people

Here on Earth there are many examples of mighty volcanoes of all shapes and sizes, but this geological formation is not exclusive to this “pale blue point”. Other worlds in the solar system also have volcanoes – and in this article you will get to know some of the most incredible volcanoes on Earth and other planets and moons.

  • The eruption of the volcano will cause a tsunami in Brazil? No, but it’s worth being warned. Understand!
  • New evidence points to the existence of active volcanoes on Venus
  • Volcanoes on Mars could be active and melt ice below the surface

Most of the volcanic features found on other worlds formed in the very distant past, when our planetary system was still young. So there are a lot of already inactive volcanoes, but some of them are going full steam ahead.

Mauna Loa on Earth

(Image: Reproduction / USGS)

Mauna Loa is located in Hawaii and is the largest volcano in the region, reaching approximately 4,169 meters above sea level and approximately 70 km in length. As well as being considered one of the most active in the world, it is the largest shield volcano on Earth, which means that it has been formed almost entirely by lava flows throughout its history.

Want to keep up to date with the hottest tech news of the day?

Access and subscribe to our new youtube channel, Canaltech News.

Every day a summary of the main news from the tech world for you!

Since the first well-documented eruption in 660, Mauna Loa has already been active 33 times and scientists believe it has been active for at least 660 thousand years – it appears to have emerged from the seabed some time ago. time 385 a thousand years.

The most recent eruption occurred between March and April 1991, but those of 1843 and 1959 caused the most death and destruction in several neighboring villages. Currently, the city of Hilo has part of its land area built on lava flows from the 19th century. Mauna Loa will erupt again, and due to its ability to produce large flows, it is constantly watched.

Tvashtar Catena on the moon Io

(Image: Reproduction / NASA)

Io is one of the four largest moons of Jupiter, discovered by Galilieu Galilei in January 1610. Although slightly smaller than our Moon, Io is the star with the strongest volcanic activity in the entire solar system. So far from the Sun, the small natural satellite keeps its interior warm thanks to the enormous gravity of the gas giant, in addition to the tidal forces of other nearby moons.

There are hundreds of volcanic vents visible on Io, one of which is Tvashtar Catena, a large chain of volcanic basins. The plume ejected by these volcanoes reaches an altitude of about 216 km – much of it falls on the moon. The gases are released at speeds of 1.385 to 3.216 km / h.

Mount Olympus on Mars

(Image: Reproduction / Public domain)

Mars is responsible for hosting the highest volcano in the entire solar system – Mount Olympus. Its height is estimated at 21.9 km above the average level of the Martian surface – three times higher than the highest mountain on Earth, Everest – with a base (or cauldron) measuring 70 km by 31 km. .

Mount Olympus was discovered in 1984 by NASA’s Mariner 9 spacecraft. According to some research, the volcano last erupted at least 2 million years ago, but not before remaining active for two billion consecutive years, contributing to the formation of the Martian surface.

Maat Mons on Venus

(Image: Reproduction / Public domain)

Matt Moons is the tallest volcano on Venus, discovered in 1989 by NASA’s Megallan spacecraft. It rises about 8 km above the mean level of the Venusian surface and has a caldera at its top, with a length of 19 km. Although it is considered active, no rash has been observed since its discovery.

The latest research suggests that the distribution of lava flows, as well as the craters and ridge morphology, have been altered probably due to recent volcanic activity at Maat Mons. The next missions sent to Venus will provide more data on the dynamics of the planet.

Tharsis Hills on Mars

(Image: Reproduction / Public domain)

The Tharsis Montes, located on Mars, is made up of three dormant volcanoes, called Arsia, Pavonis and Ascraeus, being the largest volcanic region on the planet, with approximately 4 km. This chain has almost the same elevation as Mount Olympus.

The Arsia caldera is the largest in the whole of the Red Planet, with an estimated diameter of 85 km. The region also attracts attention because of the size of the volcanoes there in relation to those on Earth – the volcanoes in the Martian region of Tharsis are even 120 times higher.

Ahuna Mons on the dwarf planet Ceres

(Image: Reproduction / NASA)

The Ahuna Mons volcano is located on the dwarf planet Ceres, located in the asteroid belt and which was studied by the NASA Dawn mission, whose probe visited it between 2015 and 2018. It amounts to 4 km from the surface and its characteristics indicate that it was formed. recently.

Ahuna Mons would have formed from a bubble of mud, salt water and rock rising from the interior of the small planet. The bubble would then have burst at a fragile point on the surface of Ceres. The expelled material cools and composes the structure.

Loki Patera on the moon Io

(Image: Reproduction / NASA / JPL)

Back in the solar system’s most volcanically active celestial body, Io, Loki Patera is an ancient lava lake on the surface of Jupiter’s little moon. It was first observed in 1959 by Voyager 1.

Loki Patera is about 200 km wide and erupts every 400 Earth days. The most recent dates from May 1991, which means that a new approach. The heat emitted by this region is such that it can be observed from terrestrial telescopes.

Icy volcanoes of the moon Triton

(Image: Reproduction / NASA)

Triton is a frozen moon on the planet Neptune and has cryovolcanoes – volcanoes that, instead of lava, expel volatile substances such as water, ammonia, or methane. The first evidence of such activity was observed by the Voyager 2 probe, in 1991.

In fact, Voyager 2 observed a handful of geyser-like eruptions spewing nitrogen gas and dust from the basement of Triton, 8 km above sea level. The best observed activities are known as Hili and Mahilani. Each eruption can last up to a year, releasing 100 million cubic meters of nitrogen ice.

Criovolcano on the moon Enceladus

(Image: Reproduction / NASA / JPL / Institute for Space Science)

In addition to Triton, Enceladus, Saturn’s sixth largest natural satellite, it has cryovolcanoes at its south pole. Its jets of water vapor, ice and organic molecules were first observed in 2005 and enhanced with the Cassini mission, making Enceladus one of the most important objects when it comes to research. life forms in other worlds.

Part of this material expelled by the cryovolcanoes of Enceladus returns in the form of snow on the moon. The other part is responsible for the formation of Saturn’s E ring with ice particles. The small natural satellite has a global ocean and its core appears to be active, thanks to the gravitational interaction with Saturn, which feeds the geysers.

Doom Mons on the Titan moon

3D map made with data from the Cassini probe (Image: Playback / NASA / JPL-Caltech)

Located on the Titan moon of Saturn, Doom Mons is a mountain range with which scientists believe there are cryovolcanoes. It was discovered in 1991, measuring almost 1,169 meters high and 85 km wide.

Doom Mons is considered a putative cryovolcano – the geological features observed in the area indicate a possible existence of cryovolcanic activity, but so far no evidence has been found.

Source: NASA, Popular Mechanics

Did you like this article?

Subscribe to your email on Canaltech to receive daily updates with the latest news from the world of technology.

Photo by cpadmin

Source link

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *